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Year : 2011  |  Volume : 52  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 45-48

Evaluation of the nitrite test in screening for urinary tract infection in febrile children with sickle cell anaemia in Maiduguri- Nigeria

1 Depatrment of Paediatrics, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria
2 Department of Paediatrics, Specialist Hospital, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Y Mava
Department of Paediatrics, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, P.M.B 1414, Maiduguri, Borno State
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

PMID: 21968796

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Background: Urinary tract infection is a significant cause of morbidity in children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA). Individuals with SCA have increased risk of urinary tract infection (UTI). Facilities for urine culture may not be available in most rural and even some urban areas in most developing countries like Nigeria. It will therefore be useful to have a simple means of screening such children for UTI with the intent of prompt treatment. Materials and Methods: The study will evaluate the usefulness of the nitrite test in detecting UTI in febrile SCA children. This study was carried out in the Department of Paediatrics University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital and State Specialist Hospital Maiduguri. Results: The study consisted of 250 children aged 6 months to 15 years with SCA presenting with fever (temperature ≥ 37. 5 o C). Midstream urine specimen was collected from older children and suprapubic bladder aspiration of urine specimen was collected from infants. Samples were subjected to nitrite test, culture and sensitivity. There was significant bacteriuria in 65 (26%) children with SCA. A positive test for nitrite was obtained in 43 of the 65 (66.2%) children. The nitrite test has a specificity of 93.5% in detecting bacteriuria, a sensitivity of 66.2%, a positive predictive value of 78.2% and a negative predictive value of 93.5%. A positive nitrite test was significantly associated with bacteriuria, while a negative test was also significantly associated with an absence of bacteriuria. Conclusions: From this study, the nitrite test is useful as a screening test for UTI in SCA children. However in sick children with SCA, microscopy, culture and sensitivity should still be done in spite of a negative nitrite test.

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