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CASE REPORT
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 54  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 274-277  

An interdisciplinary approach to treat crown-root-fractured tooth


1 Department of Prosthodontics, Stomatological Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China
2 Department of Orthodontics, Stomatological Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China

Date of Web Publication9-Oct-2013

Correspondence Address:
Ping Gao
Department of Prosthodontics, Stomatological Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, NO.12, Qixiangtai Road, Heping District, Tianjin 300070
China
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0300-1652.119664

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   Abstract 

Restoration of a crown-root subgingival fractured tooth, especially at anterior aesthetic zones is still a great challenge for restorative dentists. Crown lengthening procedure alone has the disadvantage of high gingival curve of the final restoration, which was not discontinuous to adjacent teeth and thus compromise cosmetic outcomes. The objective of this report is to display a new interdisciplinary approach which combining endodontic root canal treatment, orthodontic extrusion, periodontal crown lengthening surgery and prosthodontic post-core-crown restoration procedures to restore a crown-root subgingival fractured maxillary central incisor and achieved a satisfied cosmetic result. Computer-based spectrophotometer was also used to accurately select colour without objective interference to achieve ideal cosmetic effects.

Keywords: Crown lengthening surgery, crown-root fractured tooth, endodontic root canal treatment, fractured tooth, orthodontic appliance, orthodontic extrusion, prosthodontic post-core-crown restoration, prosthodontic treatment


How to cite this article:
Sun YC, Li Y, Tong J, Gao P. An interdisciplinary approach to treat crown-root-fractured tooth. Niger Med J 2013;54:274-7

How to cite this URL:
Sun YC, Li Y, Tong J, Gao P. An interdisciplinary approach to treat crown-root-fractured tooth. Niger Med J [serial online] 2013 [cited 2019 Nov 19];54:274-7. Available from: http://www.nigeriamedj.com/text.asp?2013/54/4/274/119664


   Introduction Top


Crown-root fracture is defined as a fracture involving both the crown and root of the teeth, usually display an oblique fracture and compromise the pulp. Subgingival crown-root-fractured tooth restoration presents great challenge to prosthodontic dentists. In such situations, prosthodontic treatment alone or when only combined with crown lengthening procedure will cause the problems of discontinuous gingival margin, gingival irritation and crown/root ratio imbalance, etc., We, hereby, report a multidisciplinary approach using the endodontic root canal treatment (RCT), orthodontic extrusion, crown lengthening surgery and post-core-crown procedure to restore a left maxillary central incisor and achieved a satisfied cosmetic result.


   Case Report Top


A 26-year-old healthy female had traumatic fractured of left maxillary central incisor for 1 day. Clinical examination showed a cervical fracture with pulp exposure. For the tooth fracture, only the labial part was 1 mm above the gingival margin; all the other parts, including mesial, distal and lingual parts, were 3-5 mm subgingival. Patient presented class I occlusion relations and good oral hygiene [Figure 1]. Gingiva was slightly swollen and no gingival laceration was present. Further periapical radiography showed that the root canal was vacant, the fracture line was oblique, the periodontal membrane was normal and the remaining root length was about 14 mm, with no additional root fracture image on the remaining part of the root [Figure 2]. After full discussion with the patient about the advantages and disadvantages of the alternative treatment approaches, including immediate implant and tooth-extraction followed by fixed or removable partial denture replacement, the patient chose to preserve the remaining root and perform a multidisciplinary treatment. Then the treatment plan was divided into four phases as follow:
Figure 1: Subgingivally fractured left maxillary central incisor

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Figure 2: Pre‑treatment periapical radiography

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Phase I: Endodontic RCT and periodontal basal therapy

Root canal therapy was performed for left maxillary central incisor and the periapical radiography after RCT was satisfied [Figure 3].
Figure 3: Periapical radiography after root canal treatment completed

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Full mouth periodontal prophylaxis cleaning and initial periodontal therapy were done before orthodontic extrusion.

Phase II: Orthodontic extrusion

A 0.8 mm Stainless Steel (SS) wire was cemented into the root canal space for the retention of orthodontic arch wire. The standard edge wise brackets were bonded on maxillary teeth and 0.018 × 0.025 inch Nickel-Titanium (NiTi) full arch wire (TP Orthodontics. Inc.) was engaged into maxillary brackets. A 0.2-0.3 N levelling and alignment extrusion force was applied, readjusted every 2 weeks. After 9 weeks engagement, 2 mm tooth structure was occlusally elevated with the simultaneous elevation of the surrounding periodontal bone tissue [Figure 4].
Figure 4: Orthodontic extrusion finished

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Phase III: Periodontal crown lengthening surgery

After 4-month retention to prevent relapse, [1],[2],[3] the crown lengthening surgery including gingival flap operation, alveoloplasty and gingivoplasty were performed to create an optimal relation between the gingival and margin of restoration. During the operation, the necessary clinical crown and suitable gingiva anatomy were reserved [Figure 5] and [Figure 6].
Figure 5: Crown lengthening surgery (in operation)

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Figure 6: Crown lengthening surgery (post operation)

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Phase IV: Prosthodontic restoration and follow-up

Two month after the periodontal crown lengthening surgery for the proper wound healing process, prosthodontic restoration was performed. After fibre post and resin core (Tenax Fiber White, Coltene Whaledent Inc.) had been built up [Figure 7], an accurately fitting provisional crown was fabricated and cemented. Tooth preparation and silicon rubber impression were made, and all-ceramic crown was fabricated by LAVA (3M ESPE).
Figure 7: Fibre post and core

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Colour-selection was performed using a new Crystaleye Spectrophotometer (Olympus, Japan). After transferring the colour-selection picture to computer, dentist discussed the shape and shade of final restoration with the patient and finally decided to reproduce the colour by simulating the right maxillary central incisor.

Final restoration was cemented with RelyX Unicem resin cement (3M ESPE). Patient was satisfied with the result of prosthodontic restoration [Figure 8].
Figure 8: Final all ceramic crown restoration

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One year follow-up evaluation indicated the restoration and gingival profile were healthy and stable without relapse.


   Discussion Top


Restoration of subgingival crown root fracture teeth is always a clinical challenge for the restorative dentist. Prosthodontic treatment alone or when combined with crown lengthening procedure will have the potential problems such as discontinuous gingival margin, gingival irritation and crown root ratio imbalance, etc., thus compromising the periodontal health and cosmetic profiles, especially at anterior aesthetic zone. Orthodontic extrusion is recommended when existing clinical crown height cannot permit the placement of a crown ferrule. [4],[5] It has been demonstrated in experimental and clinical studies that levels of gingival attachment and bone will follow the extrusive movement for single teeth. [1],[2],[6] So, we combined orthodontic extrusion with crown lengthening surgery to obtain an optimal gingival margin of restoration between the fractured tooth and adjacent teeth.

Orthodontic extrusion procedure to elevate cervical fractured tooth for restoration was introduced by Heithersey in 1973. [7] Only light forces are permissible when considering orthodontic extrusive movements. [1],[6] If the level of fracture does not invade the biological width and the residual tooth structure allows an adequate ferrule, it is possible to reconstruct the tooth and to prepare a viable prosthesis while maintaining an equilibrium between dental and periodontal structures. [8],[9] If the apical extent of the line of fracture involves the biologic width, no matter it is above or below the ridge, restorative therapy will not be feasible unless the remaining tooth structure has been exposed beyond the gingival margins. This exposure allows the tooth to be restored, provided that the health and stability of the gingival margin have been re-established with a proper biologic width. [10]

What's more, Crystaleye Spectrophotometer was employed for colour selection procedure. As we know, colour selection is one of the most difficult parts in single anterior tooth restoration to achieve harmony to adjacent teeth. This new computer-based spectrophotometer provides two advantages. First, it could avoid subjective interference and acquire optimal objective cosmetic effect. Second, it could record and reproduce the tooth colour accurately, which made it possible for the dentist to communicate with the patient on the computer and decide the colour of different parts of the tooth, including the cervical part, middle part and incisal part of the tooth.

In a word, the combination of endodontic, orthodontic, periodontal and prosthodontic disciplines is a satisfied and promising way to restore the crown-root-fractured tooth and the computer-based spectrophotometer plays an important role in the colour-selection procedure.

 
   References Top

1.Bach N, Baylard JF, Voyer R. Orthodontic extrusion: Periodontal considerations and applications. J Can Dent Assoc 2004;70:775-80.  Back to cited text no. 1
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2.Simon JH, Lythgoe JB, Torabinejad M. Clinical and histologic evaluation of extruded endodontically treated teeth in dogs. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1980;50:361-71.  Back to cited text no. 2
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3.Mantzikos T, Shamus I. Case report: Forced eruption and implant site development. Angle Orthod 1998;68:179-86.  Back to cited text no. 3
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4.Gegauff AG. Effect of crown lengthening and ferrule placement on static load failure of cemented cast post-cores and crowns. J Prosthet Dent 2000;84:169-79.  Back to cited text no. 4
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5.Ji J, Luo XP, Lu W, Shi YJ, Wu L, Shu CJ. Esthetics restoration after rapid orthodontic extrusion of subgingivally fractured incisor: A case report. Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2007;25:206-7.  Back to cited text no. 5
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6.Biggerstaff RH, Sinks JH, Carazola JL. Orthodontic extrusion and biologic width realignment procedures: Methods for reclaiming nonrestorable teeth. J Am Dent Assoc 1986;112:345-8.  Back to cited text no. 6
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7.Heithersay GS. Combined endodontic-orthodontic treatment of transverse root fractures in the region of the alveolar crest. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1973;36:404-15.  Back to cited text no. 7
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8.Parma-Benfenali S, Fugazzoto PA, Ruben MP. The effect of restorative margins on the postsurgical development and nature of the periodontium. Part I. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 1985;5:30-51.  Back to cited text no. 8
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9.Nevins M, Skurow HM. The intracrevicular restorative margin, the biologic width, and the maintenance of the gingival margin. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 1984;4:30-49.  Back to cited text no. 9
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10.Sterr N, Becker A. Forced eruption: Biological and clinical considerations. J Oral Rehabil 1980;7:395-402.  Back to cited text no. 10
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    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8]


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