Home Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size
Users Online: 442

 

Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Advertise Contacts Login 
     

  Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 55  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 148-155  

Perception of quality of maternal healthcare services among women utilising antenatal services in selected primary health facilities in Anambra State, Southeast Nigeria


1 Department of Community Medicine, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi, Nigeria
2 Department of Community Medicine, Federal Medical Center, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria
3 Department of Neurosurgery, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria

Date of Web Publication31-Mar-2014

Correspondence Address:
Ugochukwu Uchenna Onyeonoro
Department of Community Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, Abia State
Nigeria
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0300-1652.129653

Rights and Permissions
   Abstract 

Background: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study aimed at assessing antenatal care service attendees' perception of quality of maternal healthcare (MHC) services in Anambra State, southeast Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 310 pregnant women utilising antenatal care (ANC) services in three purposively selected primary health centres (PHCs) in rural communities in Anambra State were studied. Reponses were elicited from the participants selected consecutively over a 4-month period, using a pre-tested, semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics, utilisation and perception of MHC services. Data collected were analysed using SPSS version 17. Results: Findings showed that utilisation of facility for both antenatal (97.0%; 95% CI, 94.4-98.4%) and natal services (92.7%; 95% CI 89.2-95.2%) were quite high. Generally, most of the women were satisfied with MHC services (89.7%). Most of them were satisfied with the staff attitude (85.1%), waiting time (84.1%) and cost of services (79.5%). Being ≥30 years (X2 = 4.61, P = 0.032), married (X2 = 9.70, P = 0.008) and multiparous (X 2 = 9.14, P = 0.028), as well as utilisation of formal health facility for antenatal (X2 = 26.94, P = 0.000) and natal (X2 = 33.42, P = 0.000) services were associated with satisfaction with maternal health services. Conclusions: The study showed high level of satisfaction with quality of maternal health services among antenatal attendees and highlights the need to strengthen interventions that increase uptake of formal MHC services.

Keywords: Perception, maternal health, mothers, satisfaction, utilisation


How to cite this article:
Emelumadu OF, Onyeonoro UU, Ukegbu AU, Ezeama NN, Ifeadike CO, Okezie OK. Perception of quality of maternal healthcare services among women utilising antenatal services in selected primary health facilities in Anambra State, Southeast Nigeria. Niger Med J 2014;55:148-55

How to cite this URL:
Emelumadu OF, Onyeonoro UU, Ukegbu AU, Ezeama NN, Ifeadike CO, Okezie OK. Perception of quality of maternal healthcare services among women utilising antenatal services in selected primary health facilities in Anambra State, Southeast Nigeria. Niger Med J [serial online] 2014 [cited 2019 Nov 22];55:148-55. Available from: http://www.nigeriamedj.com/text.asp?2014/55/2/148/129653


   Introduction Top


Nigeria has high maternal and infant mortality. In recent years the country has embarked on measures to reform the healthcare system, including maternal healthcare (MHC) delivery, in a bid to attain Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5. Most health reform efforts have been geared towards increasing availability of healthcare services, without commensurate increase in quality. Studies have shown that increased availability of service does not always translate to increased access to healthcare. [1],[2] Hence, for these interventions to deliver optimally there is need to ensure that quality of service is taken into consideration in the provision of maternal health (MH) services.

Most women who utilise antenatal care (ANC) services in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) do not receive adequate attention; as care providers are overwhelmed by the number of pregnant women seeking ANC. [3] Consequently, some have argued for the adoption of focused ANC, in which case a woman attends ANC four times during pregnancy at specific intervals for uncomplicated pregnancies. This allows for adequate attention to be given to each pregnant woman and provides opportunity for monitoring of high risk pregnancies. Advocates of this strategy believe that this will enhance the quality of ANC services provided as well as reduce morbidity and mortality associated with high risk pregnancies. [4]

Quality of care is imperative in optimising uptake (effective utilisation) of maternal and child health services. [1],[5] In the developing countries including Nigeria, standards of quality of care are often set by health managers and care providers. Although there are several policies and guidelines to ensure quality of care, the extent to which they are adhered to is not well known. According to Uzochukwu et al., many patients in southeast Nigeria are poor and ignorant, hence often feel that they are not in a good position to influence the type and quality of services they receive even if their expectations are not met. [6]

While many studies have reported high ANC attendance among pregnant women in southeast Nigeria, only few studies have assessed the quality of ANC services among pregnant women. [1] Reducing maternal mortality and morbidity through increased service utilisation in turn requires public health interventions built on clear understanding of women's perception of maternal care services within their cultural context. [7] Quality of healthcare services can be assessed either objectively or subjectively or by assessing the supply or demand component of health services. Subjectively, assessment of patients' perception of healthcare services is one of the ways of measuring quality of healthcare. Beside using outcome of care as a basis for measuring quality of care, clients' perception of care provides another opportunity of assessing quality of care based on their perspective. Patient perception of quality of care is one of the major determinants of uptake of healthcare services including MH services. [6] It measures level of satisfaction of healthcare services received from health facility. Understanding clients' perception of healthcare services provides opportunity for identifying deficiencies in healthcare as well as motivators and barriers to uptake healthcare services. It can also be used for gathering inputs of recipients of healthcare services for the purpose of establishing more patient-friendly services, and using the same to improve quality of care. [8],[9],[10] It is also important in setting standards for MH services in the country. This study therefore is an assessment of the perception of pregnant women attending ANC services in selected public primary healthcare facilities in Anambra State.


   Materials and Methods Top


The study was carried in three purposively selected health centres in Anambra State under the management of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital. They are Primary Health Centre (PHC), Neni, Aniocha Local Government Area (LGA), Comprehensive Health Centre, Ukpo, Dunukofia LGA and PHC, Umunya, Oyi LGA. The health centres at Neni and Ukpo are supervised by the Department of Community Medicine while PHC, Umunya serves as a community outreach centre for the Department of Family Medicine. These health facilities are all located in the rural areas of Anambra State. Predominant economic activities in these communities are petty trading and farming. All the health centres provide primary healthcare services including maternal and child health services. These health services are provided by a team of doctors, pharmacists, nurses, community health extension workers (CHEWs), laboratory scientists and technicians. The study participants included pregnant women who attended ANC clinic in the three health facilities between September 2007 and August 2008. ANC and Infant welfare clinic (IWC) services are provided in the facilities on a weekly basis. Average ANC clinic attendance is 20-25 women per facility per week, while average booking rate for new clients per month is 8-10. All patients attending ANC within the period of the survey and who gave consent were recruited, until a total of 310 women were recruited. Only women with previous natal and postnatal experience were enrolled, so as to capture their natal and postnatal experiences. Nulliparous women were excluded in the survey.

Reponses were elicited from them using a semi-structured, pre-tested, interviewer-administered questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics, pattern of MH service utilisation and their perception of MH services received during the last confinement. Only women who willingly consented after due explanation of the purpose, procedure, risks and benefits, and assurance of confidentiality were enrolled. The questionnaire was pre-tested using 10 pregnant women attending ANC services at Amaku General Hospital (now Anambra State Specialist Hospital), Awka, by the researchers ascertain to appropriateness of the wording and duration of the interview. Data collected were analysed using SPSS version 17 (SPSS Inc., Chicago Illinois, USA). Association between socio-demographic variables and utilisation MH services and perception of quality of MH was assessed using the chi-square (X) [2] test, and the level of statistical significance was set at P ≤ 0.05.


   Results Top


Out of the total of 310 women recruited for the survey, 8 women did not complete the interview. The survey showed that the median age of the women was 27 years. Majority were married (94.7%), and all of them had at least primary education (88.2%). Most of them were multiparous (64.6%) as shown in [Table 1].

During their last confinement, four women (1.3%) did not attend ANC services. A total of 293 (97.0%) utilised the formal health facility for ANC services. Majority of them (78.8%) utilised the hospital during the last ANC, while 5 women (1.6%) utilised the services of traditional birth attendants/maternity. Only 57 (19.1%) booked for ANC during the first trimester and 174 women (58.4%) attended ANC at least four times.
Table 1: Socio-demographic characteristics of respondents

Click here to view


Among those who attended ANC, 30 (10.1%) could not remember or did not know the number of times they attended ANC. Median ANC attendance among them was four times [Table 2]. A total of 277 women (92.7%) delivered in a formal health facility and they included hospital (78.8%) and health centres (13.8%). Sixteen women (5.3%) were delivered by traditional birth attendants/maternity, while six of them (2.0%) delivered at home. However, all the four women who did not attend ANC consultation were delivered by traditional birth attendants. Most of them delivered via spontaneous vaginal delivery (90.7%), while 4.6% delivered either by caesarean section or by assisted vaginal delivery. A total of 293 (97.0%) carried their pregnancy to term. About 90% of them had live births; the remainder (7.3%) were still birth. A total of 92% of the deliveries were attended to by skilled birth attendants including trained auxiliary nurses.
Table 2: Pattern of maternal healthcare service utilisation

Click here to view


Out of the 296 women who delivered either in a health facility or by traditional birth attendant/maternity, most of them (91.6%) expressed satisfaction with MH services received during their last confinement. The aspect they were most satisfied with was attitude of staff (86.8%), followed by time spent in the facilities (85.6%) and the cost of services provided (81.1%) [Table 3].
Table 3: Perception of maternal health services

Click here to view


Age, marital status and parity were significantly associated with overall satisfaction with MH services. Older (≥30 years) (X[2] = 9.70, P = 0.008), married (X[2] = 4.61, P = 0.032), multiparous women (X[2] = 9.14, P = 0.028) were more likely to be satisfied with MH services. Older women were particularly satisfied with the staff attitude (X[2] = 6.95, P = 0.031), waiting time (X[2] = 14.05, P = 0.001) and cost services (X[2] = 9.81, P = 0.007) [Table 4].
Table 4: Socio-demographic characteristics and perception of maternal health services

Click here to view


Those who were married were satisfied with the staff's attitude (X[2] = 9.70, P = 0.008). Individuals with primary education were least satisfied with the time spent accessing MHC services (X[2] = 12.37, P = 0.002), however, those with tertiary education were most satisfied with the cost of MH services(X[2] = 14.03, P = 0.001). Primiparous were least satisfied with the waiting time (X [2] = 11.58, P = 0.003), while almost all the grandmultiparous women were satisfied with cost of services (X[2] = 10.68, F = 0.005) [Table 4].

Significant association was demonstrated between place of ANC attendance and overall satisfaction with MH services (X[2] = 26.94, P = 0.000), staff attitude (X[2] = 12.36, F = 0.002) and waiting time (X[2] = 18.01, P = 0.000). Utilisation of health facility for ANC services was significantly associated with satisfaction with MHC services, while cost of service was associated with the number of ANC visits (X[2] = 21.43, P = 0.000) [Table 5].
Table 5: ANC utilisation and perception of maternal healthcare services

Click here to view


Place of delivery and pregnancy outcome were associated with overall satisfaction of MH services. Delivery in a health centre (X[2] = 33.42, P = 0.000) and adverse pregnancy outcome (X[2] = 9.06, P = 0.007) were associated with non-satisfaction of MH services. Similarly, place of delivery and ANC attendance were found to be significantly associated with satisfaction with staff attitude and waiting time. Women who delivered in health centres were not satisfied with the staff attitude (X[2] = 33.33, P = 0.000), while those who delivered outside the health facility were not satisfied with time spent on accessing services (X[2] = 5.44, P = 0.020). Also, non-facility delivery (X[2] = 9.70, P = 0.008) and delivery by caesarean section (X[2] = 7.48, F = 0.018) were associated with non-satisfaction with the cost of MHC services [Table 6].
Table 6: Maternity service utilisation and perception of maternal healthcare services

Click here to view



   Discussion Top


The study revealed high level of utilisation of MH services among pregnant women accessing ANC services in rural communities in southeast Nigeria. Preferred place for MHC services was hospital, most of which were privately owned hospitals. High utilisation of hospital for maternal services is probably because their services are more convenient, readily accessible and are more likely to be staffed with a doctor than the lower levels of healthcare. An earlier study in southeast Nigeria reported that the presence of a doctor in a healthcare facility as one of the factors influencing pregnant women utilisation of MHC services. [5],[6] Compared to women in a rural community in Edo State of Nigeria where 25% of them utilised the services of TBAs for both ANC and delivery, there was less patronage of TBAs among them. [11] Hence, majority of the births were attended to by skilled birth attendants including trained auxiliary nurses with obstetrics skills. Even though most hospitals in the region are manned by doctors, their nursing staffs often comprise auxiliary nurses who have been trained on obstetrics care.

Women utilising MH services are increasingly becoming aware and desirous of the need to improve quality of MHC services provided to them. [9] Their utilisation of maternal care services has been shown to depend on their perceptions on these services. [7] Hence, their perception of MHC services is an important measure for assessing the extent their expectations are being met by both the policy makers and the care providers.

There was high level of satisfaction with the quality of MHC services received. They were most satisfied with the attitude of healthcare staff (85%), and least satisfied with the cost of services (79%). Higher level of satisfaction (95%) has been reported among rural women utilising PHC services (including MH services) in the region, and most of them also did not consider cost of services and waiting time as barriers to accessing maternal services. However, other studies have highlighted poor staff attitude, long waiting time and relative high cost of services as disincentive to the utilisation of MHC services. [6],[11] High patronage of hospital services in the region is suggestive that most women are willing to pay for MH services, despite being relatively more costly than the lower levels of healthcare. [6] Elsewhere in Africa, clients' satisfaction with maternal services is generally high, even though service cost, payment mechanism and long waiting time were identified as barriers to MH service utilisation. [12] While most patients individually often desire longer consultation with care providers, they often expressed dissatisfaction with long waiting time. [13] There was also greater preference for private health facilities to public health facilities and this was not due to difference in technical competence but primarily due tothe process of service provision. [5]

Previous studies have not demonstrated consistent relationship between patient satisfaction and socio-demographic characteristics of users of healthcare services. [14] This is because determinants of clients' satisfaction are multi-factorial and no factor has been shown to contribute to satisfaction or dissatisfaction more than the other. Patients' satisfaction with health services is purely individualistic and dynamic. [10] On the contrary, more consistent association has been demonstrated between service satisfaction and age of patients. This study revealed that non-satisfaction with MHC services was significantly associated with age, marital status and parity. Women who were younger, not currently married and primiparous were less likely to be satisfied with MHC services. Specifically, younger women were not satisfied with attitude of the healthcare workers, waiting time and cost of services, while primiparous women though were satisfied with the attitude of care providers, were less satisfied with the time and money spent on accessing MHC services. Studies have shown that younger women are often less satisfied with healthcare services than older women. [7],[13],[15] Birhanu et al., [14] reported that older women were more likely to be satisfied with communication and attitude of healthcare staff, but are often less satisfied with outcome of care. Younger women were probably less satisfied because of their level of expectation were higher and their lack of previous experience. [7],[13] Previous obstetric experience has been shown to influence women' level of satisfaction with MH, hence younger and primiparous women who have limited birth experience are less likely to be satisfied with MH received during pregnancy and delivery. [7]

Women with lower educational status were less satisfied with the time spent accessing services, while women with higher educational status were most satisfied with the cost of maternal services. In contrast, women with higher educational status play a greater role in decision-making process concerning their health than their counterparts who are less educated. This is because they are more socio-economically empowered and often have greater access to health information. Consequently, this category of women is more likely to value time and money spent on accessing quality healthcare. They are also more likely to access better quality of care and take measures to enhance their health status despite the cost. However, in India the case was converse, where an inverse relationship was observed between clients' satisfaction and literacy status. It was believed that higher literacy status increases the level of expectation from MH services, and this results in lower level of satisfaction. [15]

Place of utilisation of MHC services was found to have significantly influenced maternal perception of quality of care. Utilisation of hospital for ANC and delivery services was associated with positive perception of quality of MHC services; however, increasing frequency of ANC visits was associated with non-satisfaction with service cost. Most of those who utilised higher levels of healthcare facilities also expressed satisfaction with staff attitude and time spent to access care. Although hospital care is relatively more expensive than the lower levels of care, it is believed that it provides better quality of care. It has been reported that women are more likely to deliver in health facility they consider to be safe and secure, a consideration often borne out of quality of care received and delivery outcome of previous pregnancies. [7]

In contrast, mothers who reported adverse birth outcome had a negative perception of MHC services. Also, women who delivered either at home, maternity or by TBA and those who delivered via caesarean section considered the cost of MHC services unsatisfactory. In Nicaragua, women's perception of cost of services influenced women choice of delivery care. Positive or good pregnancy outcome was associated with satisfaction with quality of maternal care services. In contrast, frequent assessment of labour by different providers was found to be in conflict with the cultural expectation of women in Uganda, and this explains among other reasons the level of patronage. [7],[12]

In conclusion, the study showed high level of satisfaction with quality of MH services and highlights the need to strengthen interventions that encourage women's utilisation of formal healthcare services. However, the major limitation of the study was that it was conducted among women who are already seeking care in health facilities and may not reflect the opinion of those who never sought for care in health facilities.


   Acknowledgement Top


The authors greatly appreciate women attending ANC at the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital outstations at Neni, Ukpo and Umunya in Anambra State who participated in the study.

 
   References Top

1.Osariemen AG. Theoretical issues in the understanding of maternal health services utilization in Lagos State, Nigeria. Eur J Soc Sci 2011;22:431.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.World Bank. Understanding the access, demand and utilisation of health services by rural women in Nepal and their constraints. Kathmandu, Nepal, 2001.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Nikiema L, Kameli Y, Capon G, Sondo B, Martin-Prével Y. Quality of antenatal care and obstetrical coverage in rural Burkina Faso. J Health Popul Nutr 2010;28:67-75.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Mrisho M, Obrist B, Schellenberg JA, Haws RA, Mushi AK, Mshinda H, et al. The use of antenatal and postnatal care: Perspectives and experiences of women and health care providers in rural southern Tanzania. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2009;9:10.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Hutchinson PL, Do M, Agha S. Measuring client satisfaction and the quality of family planning services: A comparative analysis of public and private health facilities in Tanzania, Kenya and Ghana. BMC Health Serv Res 2011;11:203.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Uzochukwu BS, Onwujekwe OE, Akpala CO. Community satisfaction with satisfaction with the quality of maternal and child health services in south east Nigeria. East Afr Med J 2004;81:293-9.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Lubbock LN, Stephenson RB. Utilisation of maternal health care services in the Department of Matagalpa, Nicaragua. Rev Panam Salud Publica 2008;24:75-84.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Mahfouz AA, Al-Sharif AI, El-Gamal MN, Kisha AH. Primary health care services utilization and satisfaction among the elderly in Asir region, Saudi Arabia. East Mediterr Health J 2004;10:365-71.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Mairiga AG, Kawuwa MB, Kullima A. Community perception of maternal mortality in North Eastern Nigeria. Afr J Reprod Health 2008;12:27-34.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Mendoza Aldana J, Piechulek H, Al-Sabir A. Client satisfaction and quality of health care in rural Bangladesh. Bull World Health Organ 2001;79:512-7.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.Osubor KM, Fatusi AO, Chiwuzie JC. Maternal health-seeking behavior and associated factors in a rural Nigerian community. Matern Child Health J 2006;10:159-69.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.Ssengooba F, Neema S, Mbonye A, Sentubwe O, Onama V. Health systems development maternal health review, Uganda. Health Systems Development Programme. Makerere University Institute of Public Health, 2003.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.Warner-Smith P, Lee C, ALSWH team, editors. Health in rural and remote areas of Australia. Summary report prepared for the Australian Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing. Australian longitudinal study on women's health, University of Newcastle & University of Queensland. August, 2003. No 79.   Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.Birhanu Z, Assefa T, Woldie M, Morankar S. Determinants of satisfaction with health care provider interactions at health centres in central Ethiopia: A cross sectional study. BMC Health Serv Res 2010;10:78.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.Banerjee B. A qualitative analysis of maternal and child health services of an urban health centre, by assessing client perception in terms of awareness, satisfaction and service utilization. Indian J Community Med 2003;28.  Back to cited text no. 15
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6]


This article has been cited by
1 Exploring Woman –Nurse Interaction in a Jordanian Antenatal Clinic: a qualitative study
Karimeh AL-Nuaimi,Arwa Oweis,Huda Habtoosh
Midwifery. 2019;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 The relationship between perceived service quality of antenatal care and use among rural women in Ghana
Benedict Osei Asibey,Augustina Boakye Dankwah,Seth Agyemang
International Journal of Social Economics. 2019;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Patterns and determinants of essential neonatal care utilization among underprivileged ethnic groups in Midwest Nepal: a mixed method study
Keshab Sanjel,Sharad Raj Onta,Archana Amatya,Prem Basel
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2019; 19(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 “There is no time for knowing each other”: Quality of care during childbirth in a low resource setting
Florence Mgawadere,Helen Smith,Atnafu Asfaw,Jaki Lambert,Nynke van den Broek
Midwifery. 2019; 75: 33
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Quality of Antenatal Care: Comparison between Secondary and Tertiary Health Facilities in Ibadan, Nigeria
Oluwasomidoyin Olukemi Bello
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2018; 08(06): 559
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Assessment of Perinatal Care Satisfaction Amongst Mothers Attending Postnatal Care in Ibadan, Nigeria
Titilayo Dorothy Odetola,Emmanuel Oluwabukunmi Fakorede
Annals of Global Health. 2018; 84(1): 36
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Perception About Traditional Birth Attendants By Men And Women Of Reproductive Age In Rural Migori County, Kenya
Joyce J Cheptum,Moses M Gitonga,Ernest M Mutua,Salome J Mukui,James M Ndambuki,Winnie J Koima
International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 Service readiness, health facility management practices, and delivery care utilization in five states of Nigeria: a cross-sectional analysis
Anastasia J. Gage,Onyebuchi Ilombu,Akanni Ibukun Akinyemi
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2016; 16(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 Iranian women and care providers’ perceptions of equitable prenatal care
Mahin Gheibizadeh,Heidar Ali Abedi,Easa Mohammadi,Parvin Abedi
Nursing Ethics. 2016; 23(4): 465
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 Out of pocket expenditure to deliver at public health facilities in India: a cross sectional analysis
Anns Issac,Susmita Chatterjee,Aradhana Srivastava,Sanghita Bhattacharyya
Reproductive Health. 2016; 13(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 How do Malawian women rate the quality of maternal and newborn care? Experiences and perceptions of women in the central and southern regions
Christabel Kambala,Julia Lohmann,Jacob Mazalale,Stephan Brenner,Manuela De Allegri,Adamson S. Muula,Malabika Sarker
BMC Pregnancy & Childbirth. 2015; 15(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
12 Women’s satisfaction with childbirth care in Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar city, Northwest Ethiopia, 2014: cross sectional study
Mesafint Ewunetu Mekonnen,Worku Awoke Yalew,Zelalem Alamrew Anteneh
BMC Research Notes. 2015; 8(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

Top
  
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
    Abstract
   Introduction
    Materials and Me...
   Results
   Discussion
   Acknowledgement
    References
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed7718    
    Printed91    
    Emailed3    
    PDF Downloaded301    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 12    

Recommend this journal