Home Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size
Users Online: 1159

 

Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Advertise Contacts Login 
     

  Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 56  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 43-47  

Factors associated with antiretroviral treatment interruption in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected children attending the Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria


1 Department of Paediatrics, University of Jos/Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria
2 Department of Paediatrics, Benue State University Teaching Hospital, Makurdi, Nigeria

Date of Web Publication13-Jan-2015

Correspondence Address:
Augustine O Ebonyi
Department of Paediatrics, University of Jos/Jos University Teaching Hospital, P.M.B 2076, Jos
Nigeria
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0300-1652.149170

Rights and Permissions
   Abstract 

Background: Interrupting anti-retroviral therapy (ART) for any number of reasons is an indication of a compromised adherence to ART. Several factors, including the pill burden from other drugs used in treating co-infections in children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), may influence ART adherence. The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with ART interruption in HIV-1-infected children. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study analysing data on 580 children consecutively enrolled on ART between February 2006 and December 2010 at the paediatric HIV clinic of Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH), Jos. Subjects were children aged 2 months - 15 years diagnosed with HIV-1 infection and on first-line ART. Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis was usually commenced at diagnosis while awaiting ART commencement. Children diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB) were also placed on multiple individual anti-TB drugs. Statistical analysis used: A comparison of the data on children with and without ART interruption was made. Variables associated with ART interruption in a univariate analysis were fit in a multivariate logistic model to determine the factors that were associated with ART interruption. Results: Children on anti-TB drugs were twice more likely to interrupt ART compared to those who were not, (adjusted odds ratio, AOR = 1.84 (1.03-3.28); P = 0.04). But children on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis had a 57% reduction in the odds of interrupting ART compared to those who were not, (AOR = 0.43 (0.20-0.93); P = 0.03). Conclusion: Children on ART and also taking multiple individual anti-TB drugs should be monitored closely for ART adherence. Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis should be encouraged in children diagnosed with HIV while awaiting ART commencement as this may prime them for a better ART adherence.

Keywords: ART interruption, anti-TB drugs, ART adherence, cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, HIV-1, Pill burden


How to cite this article:
Ebonyi AO, Ejeliogu EU, Okpe SE, Shwe DD, Yiltok ES, Ochoga MO, Oguche S. Factors associated with antiretroviral treatment interruption in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected children attending the Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria. Niger Med J 2015;56:43-7

How to cite this URL:
Ebonyi AO, Ejeliogu EU, Okpe SE, Shwe DD, Yiltok ES, Ochoga MO, Oguche S. Factors associated with antiretroviral treatment interruption in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected children attending the Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria. Niger Med J [serial online] 2015 [cited 2019 Nov 12];56:43-7. Available from: http://www.nigeriamedj.com/text.asp?2015/56/1/43/149170


   Introduction Top


Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) continues to constitute a major health problem in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where it is estimated that 2.9 million children were currently living with HIV/AIDS in 2012. [1] Only 34% of these children are currently on anti-retroviral therapy (ART). [2] In 2010, Nigeria had about 440,000 children below the age of 15 years living with HIV/AIDS [3] of which 280,000 were eligible for ART but only 7% were receiving ART. [4] In children, the benefits of ART include the reduction in morbidity and mortality. [5],[6],[7],[8],[9]

Interrupting ART for any reason, which could lead to poor ART adherence, may encourage the development of resistance to antiretroviral drugs (ARVs). [10] Poor adherence [11],[12],[13] and drug resistance [13],[14] are known to be associated with ART failure which could compromise the benefits of ART in children.

Interrupting ART is an indication of a compromised adherence to ARVs. Socio-economic, cultural, behavioural and clinical [12],[15],[16],[17],[18],[19],[20] factors have been reported to be associated with poor ART adherence in children. Few studies [12] have looked at the influence of other medications taken along with ARVs, on adherence to ART. Also, pill burden may affect adherence to ART [16] ; with one study showing that, the rate of adherence improves when the pill burden is low. [21] Drugs, such as cotrimoxazole, used for prophylaxis against opportunistic infections (OIs) and anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB) drugs, are commonly used in children with HIV/AIDS and these may affect ART adherence. In this study, we determined the factors associated with ART interruption in HIV-1 infected children attending the HIV clinic at the Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos.


   Materials and methods Top


This was a retrospective cohort study which analysed data on 580 children who were consecutively enrolled on ART between February 2006 and December 2010. Study subjects were children aged 2 months - 15 years diagnosed with HIV-1 infection at presentation to the AIDS Prevention Initiative in Nigeria (APIN)-supported paediatric HIV clinic at the Jos university teaching hospital (JUTH), Jos, Nigeria and who were subsequently commenced on first-line ART. A written informed consent was obtained from the parents/guardians of the children for use of the data for research as approved by the Ethics committee of the Jos University Teaching Hospital.

The data obtained included the following: Demographic (age and sex); clinical (the use of cotrimoxazole for opportunistic infections prophylaxis, treatment with anti-TB drugs, treatment with ARVs, World Health Organisation (WHO) HIV clinical stage, oral thrush and weight-for-age z score (WAZ)) and laboratory (haemoglobin (Hb) level, viral load, absolute cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cell count). In this study, ART interruption was defined as failure to take medications (missed more than 2 doses or missed more than 1 day of ART) during any 4 weeks follow-up period. Each child had a total of seven follow-up visits over a period of 8 months since starting ARVs. And the common reasons for interrupting treatment include: Forgot to take medication, caregiver travelled and medicine not available.

The diagnosis of HIV and the criteria for commencement of ART in children was based on the Nigeria's National Guidelines for Paediatric HIV and AIDS Treatment and Care. [22] Data on treatment failure was also obtained. Treatment failure was either virological or immunological or both; with or without clinical failure and defined using the Nigeria national guidelines for paediatric HIV and AIDS treatment and care. [22] The diagnosis of TB was based on WHO guidelines for the management of TB in children. [23]

Medications used by study subjects: At diagnosis of HIV infection, prior to starting ART, all children were usually commenced on cotrimoxazole for prophylaxis against OIs. Children diagnosed with HIV were placed on first-line ART which could be any one of the following combinations: Zidovudine (AZT) + Lamivudine (3TC) + Nevirapine (NVP) or AZT + 3TC + Efervirenz (EFV); and the dosing regimen were twice a day for AZT, 3TC & NVP or once a day for EFV. [22] HIV-positive children diagnosed with TB were placed on a multiple individual anti-TB drugs at the time of this study (2005-2010) and not fixed dose combination (FDC) drugs which were only recently introduced in 2012. These individual anti-TB drugs, which were taken separately, include: Rifampicin (R), Isoniazid (H), Pyrazinamide (Z) and Ethambutol (E). For the treatment of pulmonary TB (PTB), the children received all four of the single drugs for 2 months in the intensive phase and two of the single drugs (R and H) for 4 months in the continuation phase; the dosing regimen being once a day. The duration of treatment varies with the other forms of TB. [23]

Laboratory investigations done were part of the existing HIV treatment programme. HIV serodiagnosis, was done using two different rapid HIV test - Uni-Gold (Trinity Biotech Plc Bray Co.; Wicklow, Ireland) and Determine (Determine Alere Medical Co. Ltd.; Matsuhidai, Japan) HIV-1/2 tests were used for children 18 months of age and above. Amplicor HIV-1 deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test, version 1.5 (Roche Molecular Systems; Branchburg, NJ, USA) was used to diagnose HIV infection in children under 18 months of age. Flow cytometry (Partec GmbH, Munster Germany) was used to measure the CD4+ lymphocyte count and Roche Cobas Amplicor HIV-1 Monitor, version 1.5 (Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Mannheim, Germany) was used to measure HIV-1 ribonucleic acid (RNA) viral load.

Statistical analyses

ART interruption was the outcome variable (a binary variable). Children who had ART interruption were compared with those who did not. All other variables were regarded as independent variables. The weight-for-age z score (WAZ) was determined from the weight of the children, adjusted for age and sex, using the WHO AnthroPlus software [24] by importing the variables - weight, age and sex in the form of a text file into the software. The WAZ was then categorised into a binary variable using the WHO cut-off of Z < -3 with WAZ < -3 defined as severe malnutrition. [25] WHO clinical stage was stratified into stage 3 or 4 versus stages 1 or 2 and HIV RNA viral load categorised into <10.5 log 10 versus ≥10.5 log 10 copies/mL using the median cut-off value.

The association between each independent variable and the outcome was examined using the Chi squared or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables while the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test was used for comparison of two medians. The association between the independent variables and outcome was examined using univariate logistic regression. Variables that were associated with treatment failure in the univariate analyses at P <0.02 were considered for inclusion in the multivariate model. Age and sex were included a priori in the multivariate model since these could influence disease processes. A backward stepwise modelling strategy was used in building the final multivariate model. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was determined to assess the performance of the model. Results of the logistic regression analyses were expressed as odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). All analyses were performed using Stata software version 10.0 (Stata Corporation, College Station, Texas, USA) and all tests were two-sided with a P value of <0.05 considered statistically significant.


   Results Top


The frequency of antiretroviral treatment interruption was 20.2% among the 580 children enrolled to receive ART. Among the study subjects, majority were: Children aged 1-5 years (49.6%), females (51.5%), on anti-TB drugs (64.4%), not on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis before commencement of ART (82.4%). Only a few had oral thrush (3.2%), anaemia (5.4%), severe malnutrition (24.5%), failed first-line ART (22.5%) or were in WHO clinical stage 3 or 4 (58.1%). The median CD4 cell count was 478 cells/mL (interquartile range (IQR), 267-794 cells/mL), median viral load 38,597 copies/mL (IQR, 4,145-170,133 copies/mL) [Table 1].
Table 1: Characteristics of HIV-1 infected children interrupting antiretroviral therapy


Click here to view


In the unadjusted logistic regression analysis, the odds of ART interruption was about twice more in children on anti-TB drugs compared to those who were not (OR = 1.95) and this was significant (P = 0.005). The odds of ART interruption was reduced by about half in those who were on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis compared to those who were not (OR = 0.56) but not significant (P = 0.06). Though the odds of ART interruption was more: In those who failed first-line ART compared to those who did not (OR = 1.52), in those with HIV RNA viral load ≥10.5 log 10 copies/mL compared to those with less (OR = 1.53) and in those with Hb <8.0 g/dL compared to those with higher levels (OR = 1.51), these findings were not significant (p = 0.09, p = 0.10 & 0.35 respectively). Also, despite a reduced odds of ART interruption in males compared to females (OR = 0.66) this was not significant (P = 0.05) [Table 2].
Table 2: Factors associated with antiretroviral treatment failure in HIV-1 infected children


Click here to view


In the multivariate analysis, only the use of anti-TB drugs and cotrimoxazole for prophylaxis were significantly associated with ART interruption. Children on anti-TB drugs were twice more likely to interrupt ART compared to those who were not, Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 1.84; 95% CI (1.03-3.28); P = 0.04). But children on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis had a 57% reduction in the odds of interrupting ART compared to those who were not, (AOR = 0.43; 95% CI (0.20-0.93); P = 0.03). The area under the ROC curve for the final model was 0.62.


   Discussion Top


Being on anti-TB drugs and on cotrimoxazole where the factors independently associated with ART interruption.

In our study, we found a strong association between taking multiple single anti-TB drugs along with ARVs and ART interruption which is an indicator of compromised ART adherence. Taking multiple individual anti-TB drugs as in our study as against taking FDC anti-TB drugs increased the pill burden. To support our finding, one meta-analysis study involving patients with various chronic diseases including tuberculosis and HIV infection, showed that adherence was better in those who took fewer pills in the form of FDCs. [26] Another study by O'Connor et al. in patients on ART also showed an association between a greater pill burden and suboptimal adherence. [21]

Our observation of a reduction in ART interruption in children on cotrimoxazole is supported by the findings of Biadgilign et al.[17] and Ebonyi et al.[27] that children on ART who also took cotrimoxazole, were more likely to adhere to ART. This may be so because being on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis even prior to commencing ART had already familiarised the children and caregivers to good adherence.

One of the limitations of our study was that we did not assess the influence of the adverse effects of ARVs or anti-TB drugs on ART adherence which could be confounding factors in the association between anti-TB drugs and ART treatment interruption. It is well documented that the side effects of these drugs could interfere with ART adherence. [28],[29] Another limitation was our inability to measure the potential confounding effects of socio-economic, cultural or behavioural factors [12],[15],[16],[17],[18],[19],[20] on the association between our identified independent variables and ART interruption.

[TAG:2]CONCLUSION [/TAG:2]

Being on anti-TB drugs and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis were the factors identified to be associated with ART interruption. Children on ART and also taking anti-TB drugs should be monitored closely for ART adherence. Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis should be encouraged in children diagnosed with HIV while awaiting ART commencement as this would prime them for a better ART adherence.


   Acknowledgment Top


This publication was facilitated in part, by the US Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration (U51HA02522) which funded HIV/AIDS treatment and care services at APIN, JUTH, Jos. We are grateful to APIN, JUTH, JOS for permission to use the data and we thank Placid Ugoagwu for data management.


   Author contributions Top


AOE: Concept, Design, Literature search, Data acquisition, Data analysis, Manuscript preparation/editing/review. SO, EUE, SEO, DDS, ESY, MOO: Data acquisition, Manuscript editing/review.

 
   References Top

1.
UNAIDS. Regional fact sheet 2012: Sub-Saharan Africa. Available from: http://www.unaids.org/en/media/unaids/contentassets/documents/epidemiology/2012/gr2012/2012_FS_regional_ssa_en.pdf [Last accessed on 2013 Apr 20].  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
UNAIDS. UNAIDS AIDS report on Global AIDS epidemic 2013. Available from: http://www.unaids.org/en/media/unaids/contentassets/documents/epidemiology/2013/gr2013/UNAIDS_Global_Report_2013_en.pdf [Last accessed on 2013 Dec 30].  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Global Health Facts. Children living with HIV/AIDS <15 yrs old, 2011. Available from: http://www.globalhealthfacts.org/data/topic/map.aspx?ind=6. [Last accessed on 2013 Apr 20].  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
WHO. Global HIV/AIDS response. Available from: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/44787/1/9789241502986_eng.pdf [Last accessed on 2013 April 20].  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Ciaranello AL, Chang Y, Margulis AV, Bernstein A, Bassett IV, Losina E, et al. Effectiveness of pediatric antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis 2009;10:1915-1927.   Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Puthanakit T, Oberdorfer A, Akarathum N, Kanjanavanit S, Wannarit P, Sirisanthana T, et al. Efficacy of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children participating in Thailand's national access to antiretroviral program. Clin Infect Dis 2005;10:100-107.   Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Patel K, Hernan MA, Williams PL, Seeger JD, McIntosh K, Van Dyke RB, et al. Long-term effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy on the survival of children and adolescents with HIV infection: A 10-year follow-up study. Clin Infect Dis 2008;10:507-515.   Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Musoke PM, Mudiope P, Barlow-Mosha LN, Ajuna P, Bagenda D, Mubiru MM, et al. Growth, immune and viral responses in HIV infected African children receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy: A prospective cohort study. BMC Pediatr 2010;10:56.   Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Ebonyi AO, Oguche S, Dablets E, Sumi B, Yakubu E , Sagay AS. Effect of HAART on growth parameters and absolute CD4 count among HIV-infected children in a rural community of Central Nigeria. Niger J Paed 2014;41:1-6.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Luebbert J, Tweya H, Phiri S, Chaweza T, Mwafilaso J, Hosseinipour MC, et al. Virological failure and drug resistance in patients on antiretroviral therapy after treatment interruption in Lilongwe, Malawi. Clin Infect Dis 2012;55:441-8  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Sebunya R, Musiime V, Kitaka SB, Ndeezi G. Incidence and risk factors for first line anti retroviral treatment failure among Ugandan children attending an urban HIV clinic. AIDS Res Ther 2013;10:25.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Biadgilign S, Deribew A, Amberbir A, Deribe K. Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy and its correlates among HIV infected pediatric patients in Ethiopia. BMC Pediatr 2008;8:53-18.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Al Hajjar SH, Frayha H, Althawadi S. Antiretroviral resistance in HIV-infected Saudi children failing first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy. Ann Saudi Med 2012;32:565-9.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Rath BA, von Kleist M, Castillo ME, Kolevic L, Caballero P, Soto-Castellares G, et al. Antiviral Resistance and Correlates of Virologic Failure in the first Cohort of HIV-Infected Children Gaining Access to Structured Antiretroviral Therapy in Lima, Peru: A Cross-Sectional Analysis. BMC Infect Dis 2013;13:1.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Haberer J, Mellins C. Pediatric Adherence to HIV Antiretroviral Therapy. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2009;6:194-200.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
WHO. Adherence to long-term therapies: Evidence for action. Available from: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2003/9241545992.pdf [Last accessed on 2014 on Feb 15].  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Biadgilign S, Deribew A, Amberbir A, Deribe K. Barriers and facilitators to antiretroviral medication adherence among HIV-infected paediatric patients in Ethiopia: A qualitative study. SAHARA J 2009;6:148-54.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Vreeman RC, Wiehe SE, Pearce EC, Nyandiko WM. A systematic review of pediatric adherence to antiretroviral therapy in low- and middle-income countries. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2008;27:686-91.   Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Bhattacharya M, Dubey AP. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy and its correlates among HIV-infected children at an HIV clinic in New Delhi. Ann Trop Paediatr 2011;31:331-7.   Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Polisset J, Ametonou F, Arrive E, Aho A, Perez F. Correlates of adherence to antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children in Lomé, Togo, West Africa. AIDS Behav 2009;13:23-32.   Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
O'Connor JL, Gardner EM, Mannheimer SB, Lifson AR, Esser S, Telzak EE, et al. Factors associated with adherence amongst 5295 people receiving antiretroviral therapy as part of an international trial. J Infect Dis 2013;208:40-49.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Federal Ministry of Health: Nigeria: National Guidelines for Paediatric HIV and AIDS Treatment and Care. 2010. Available from: http://www.aidstarone.com/sites/default/files/treatment/national_treatment_guidelines/Nigeria_peds_2010_tagged.pdf [Last accessed on 2013 Feb 15].   Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
WHO. Guidance for national tuberculosis programmes on the management of tuberculosis in children. Available from: http://www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/documents/htm_tb_2006_371/en/ [Last accessed on 2014 Feb 15].  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
WHO. Application tools: WHO AnthroPlus software. Available from: http://www.who.int/ growthref/tools/en/ [Last accesses 2013 Apr 20].  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
WHO. Global Database on Child Growth and Malnutrition. Available from: http://www.who.int/nutgrowthdb/about/introduction/en/index5.html [Last accessed on 2013 Apr 20].  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Bangalore S, Kamalakkannan G, Parkar S, Messerli FH. Fixed-Dose Combinations Improve Medication Compliance: A Meta-Analysis. Am J Med 2007;120:713-9.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Ebonyi AO, Oguche S, Ejeliogu EU, Okpe SE, Agbaji OO, Sagay SA, et al. Risk factors for first-line antiretroviral treatment failure in HIV-1 infected children attending the Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, North Central Nigeria. Br J Med Med Res 2014;4:2983-2994  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Ammassari A, Murri R, Pezzotti P, Trotta MP, Ravasio L, De Longis P, et al. Self-reported symptoms and medication side effects influence adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy in persons with HIV Iinfection. J Accquir Immune Defic Syndr 2001;28:445-9.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Intentional nonadherence due to adverse symptoms associated with antiretroviral therapy. Heath KV, Singer J, O'Shaughnessy MV, Montaner JS, Hogg RS. J Accquir Immune Defic Syndr 2002;31:211-7.  Back to cited text no. 29
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]


This article has been cited by
1 Interruptions of antiretroviral therapy in children and adolescents with HIV infection in clinical practice: a retrospective cohort study in the USA
Natella Rakhmanina,Kam S Lam,Jaclyn Hern,Heather A Young,Alex Walters,Amanda D Castel
Journal of the International AIDS Society. 2016; 19(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Factors Associated with the Development of Drug Resistance Mutations in HIV-1 Infected Children Failing Protease Inhibitor-Based Antiretroviral Therapy in South Africa
Theresa M. Rossouw,Ute D. Feucht,George Melikian,Gisela van Dyk,Winifred Thomas,Nicolette M. du Plessis,Theunis Avenant,Luis Menéndez-Arias
PLOS ONE. 2015; 10(7): e0133452
[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

Top
  
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
    Abstract
   Introduction
    Materials and me...
   Results
   Discussion
   Conclusion
   Acknowledgment
   Author contributions
    References
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed2025    
    Printed32    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded104    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 2    

Recommend this journal