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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 58  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 101-106

Pattern of thyroid disorders in children and adolescents seen at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria, over a 10-year period


1 Department of Paediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Lagos/Lagos University Teaching Hospital; Paediatric Endocrinology Training Centre for West Africa, LUTH, Lagos, Nigeria
2 Paediatric Endocrinology Training Centre for West Africa, LUTH; Department of Paediatrics, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria
3 Paediatric Endocrinology Training Centre for West Africa, LUTH, Lagos; Department of Paediatrics, Ahmadu Bello UniversityTeaching Hospital, Zaria, Kaduna, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Elizabeth Eberechi Oyenusi
Department of Paediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Lagos/Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Idi-Araba Lagos/Paediatric Endocrinology Training Centre For West Africa, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos
Nigeria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/nmj.NMJ_156_16

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Introduction: Thyroid disorders account for a large proportion of pediatric endocrine disorders. Untreated hypothyroidism in childhood has permanent adverse effects on physical, intellectual, and neurological development. However, few studies have reported the pattern of pediatric thyroid disorders in Nigeria. Objectives: The objective of this study was to document the pattern of thyroid disorders in children and adolescents seen at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH) over a 10-year period. Participants and Methods: This is a retrospective descriptive study involving children with thyroid disorders seen from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2015. Results: Seventy-one patients with thyroid disorders (0.13%) were seen out of 52,800 new cases (incidence of 1/1000 new cases) comprising 13.4% of 546 pediatric endocrine cases with a male:female ratio of 1:1.2. Median (range) age at presentation was 1.6 (0.001–14) years. Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) constituted a major proportion of cases (46.7%), with a median (range) age at presentation of 9 (1.5–24) months. Down syndrome constituted 45% of patients with CH with associated congenital heart defects in eight (53%) patients. Acquired hypothyroidism was seen in ten patients (five goitrous and five nongoitrous). Six patients had hypothyroidism associated with multiple anterior pituitary hormone deficiency. Nine patients (all females) had hyperthyroidism with confirmed Graves' disease in 5 (55.6%), with mean age at presentation being 9.4 ± 2.09 years. Other conditions were euthyroid sick syndrome (2.8%), euthyroid goiter (1.4%), and acute thyroiditis (1.4%). Eight infants of mothers on treatment for hyperthyroidism ( first seen between the 7th h of life to 2 months of age) had transient hypothyroidism while one 8-day-old had transient hyperthyroidism. Conclusion: CH was the most common disorder encountered with late age at presentation. Routine newborn screening and maintaining a high index of suspicion are advocated.


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