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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
The human health implications of crude oil spills in the Niger delta, Nigeria: An interpretation of published studies
Best Ordinioha, Seiyefa Brisibe
January-February 2013, 54(1):10-16
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.108887  PMID:23661893
Background: The health hazards created by oil exploration and exploitation are covert and slow in action. They are not given the deserved attention in official documents in Nigeria, even as they can be major contributors to the disease burden in oil-bearing communities. This study is an interpretation of the data reported in several published studies on crude oil spills in the Niger delta region, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A manual and Internet search was conducted to extract quantitative data on the quantity of crude oil spilled; the concentrations of the pollutants in surface water, ground water, ambient air and plant and animal tissue; and the direct impact on human health and household food security. Results: An average of 240,000 barrels of crude oil are spilled in the Niger delta every year, mainly due to unknown causes (31.85%), third party activity (20.74%), and mechanical failure (17.04%). The spills contaminated the surface water, ground water, ambient air, and crops with hydrocarbons, including known carcinogens like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and benxo (a) pyrene, naturally occurring radioactive materials, and trace metals that were further bioaccumulated in some food crops. The oil spills could lead to a 60% reduction in household food security and were capable of reducing the ascorbic acid content of vegetables by as much as 36% and the crude protein content of cassava by 40%. These could result in a 24% increase in the prevalence of childhood malnutrition. Animal studies indicate that contact with Nigerian crude oil could be hemotoxic and hepatotoxic, and could cause infertility and cancer. Conclusions: The oil spills in the Niger delta region have acute and long-term effects on human health. Material relief and immediate and long-term medical care are recommended, irrespective of the cause of the spill, to ensure that the potential health effects of exposures to the spills are properly addressed.
  19 7,981 626
Barriers to utilisation of maternal health services in a semi-urban community in northern Nigeria: The clients' perspective
Suleman Hadejia Idris, Mohammed Nasir Sambo, Muhammed Sani Ibrahim
January-February 2013, 54(1):27-32
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.108890  PMID:23661896
Background: Low level of utilisation of maternal health services is a major factor responsible for high maternal mortality in northwestern region of Nigeria. This study was aimed at determining the barriers to utilisation of maternal health services from the perspective of mothers in northwestern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 150 mothers, selected through multistage technique, was conducted. Data were collected using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire, and analysed using SPSS statistics 17.0. Results: Only 2.7% utilised preconception service, 98.7% antenatal care service (ANC), 24.0% delivery, 35.3% postnatal care and 14.0% utilised family planning service. Major reasons for non-utilisation of delivery service were not having a delivery complication in the past (57% (CI = 47.4-66.1)) and negative provider attitude (23.7% (CI = 16.4-32.7)). For non-utilisation of postnatal care, the major reasons were also not having a postnatal complication in the past (60.8% (CI = 50.4-70.4)) and negative provider attitude (27.8% (CI = 19.4-38.0)). As for non-utilisation of family planning service, the major reason was desire to have more children (32.6% (CI = 24.7-41.4)). Reasons for non-use of preconception care and ANC were not computed because respondents to these questions were not enough; only 6 (4.0%) were aware of preconception care in the first place and only 2 (1.3%) were not using ANC. Conclusion: Despite living near a health facility, most of the mothers were not using maternal health services. It is recommended that while there is the need to raise awareness on the utilisation of maternal health services, bring it closer to the mothers and make it more affordable, there is a more pressing need to improve its quality, especially through the alleviation of negative attitude of health care providers.
  16 6,799 428
Cardiovascular disease risk factors among HIV-infected Nigerians receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy
Sanusi Muhammad, Mahmoud Umar Sani, Basil N Okeahialam
May-June 2013, 54(3):185-190
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.114591  PMID:23901181
Background: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has become more accessible to Human immunodeficiency virus infection/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients worldwide. There is growing concern that the metabolic complications associated with HIV and HAART may increase cardiovascular risk and lead to cardiovascular diseases. We, therefore, set out to describe the cardiovascular risk profile of HIV/AIDS patients receiving HAART at a health facility in northern part of Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria. Consenting patients, who had been receiving HAART, were compared with age and sex matched HAART-naive subjects. Questionnaire interview, electrocardiography, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were conducted under standard conditions. Blood samples were obtained for the determination of plasma glucose, uric acid and lipid levels. Results: Two hundred subjects were studied, 100 were on HAART (group 1) and the other 100 (group 2) were HAART-naive. Subjects' mean age for all the participants was 32.5 (7.6) years. The prevalence of hypertension was 17% in group 1 and 2% in group 2 ( P < 0.001). Similarly, 11% and 21% of group 1 subjects were obese or had metabolic syndrome compared with 2% and 9% of group 2 patients ( P < 0.05 for both) . Conclusion: HAART treatment was associated with significantly higher prevalences of hypertension, obesity and metabolic syndrome.
  15 2,281 204
Prevalence of intestinal parasites and bacteria among food handlers in a tertiary care hospital
DA Zaglool, YA Khodari, R. A. M. Othman, MU Farooq
October-December 2011, 52(4):266-270
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.93802  
Objectives: The aim of this work is to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and bacteria among the food handlers. Materials and Methods: Two hundred food-handlers were subjected to a cross-sectional study working in the kitchen of a tertiary care hospital, i.e., Alnoor Specialist Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia from February 2 to 27, 2009. The stool samples were examined for intestinal parasites following direct microscopic examination, formol ether concentration (Ritchie), and staining with modified acid fast staining techniques. For enteropathogenic bacteria samples were inoculated onto MacConkey's agar, deoxycholate citrate agar, xylose lysine deoxycholate agar as per the World Health Organization protocol. Fingernail materials were examined microscopically for enteropathogenic bacteria and parasites. Results: The majority (80%) of the food-handlers were young adults aged from 22 to 42 years. No intestinal parasites were detected from fingernail contents. Forty six (23%) stool specimens were positive for intestinal paraͼsites. Giardia lamblia 18 (9%) was most frequent among the 10 different types of detected intestinal parasites followed by Entamoeba histolytica 9 (4.5%). No pathogenic bacteria were detected in all stool samples, whereas finger nails showed isolation of microorganisms as coagulase-negative staphylococci 79 (39.5%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus 35 (17.5%). Conclusion: The findings emphasized the importance of food handlers as potential sources of infections and suggested health institutions for appropriate hygienic and sanitary control measures.
  12 3,983 370
Barriers to postnatal care and exclusive breastfeeding among urbanwomen in southeastern Nigeria
Joseph O Ugboaja, Nwosu O Berthrand, Anthony O Igwegbe, Amaka L OBI-Nwosu
January-February 2013, 54(1):45-50
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.108895  PMID:23661899
Background: Available evidence shows that only a small proportion of Nigerian women access postnatal care and practice exclusive breastfeeding. Given that both interventions are critical to the survival of both the mother and the new born, it is important to identify factors that militate against an effective postnatal care and exclusive breastfeeding in the country, in order to scale up services. The aim was to determine the major barriers to postnatal care and exclusive breastfeeding among urban women in southeastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 400 urban market women using semistructured questionnaires and focus group discussions. Results: Out of 400 women interviewed, 365 (91.7%) attended postnatal clinic. Lack of knowledge about postnatal care services (42.2%; n = 14), distant location of the hospitals (36.4%; n = 12) and feeling that postnatal visits was not necessary (21.1%; n = 7) were the main reasons for non-attendance to postnatal clinic. With respect to exclusive breastfeeding, 143 (35.9%) of the women practiced EBF. The main reasons for nonpractice of EBF were that EBF was very stressful (26.2%; n = 67), mother's refusal (23.5%; n = 60), and the feeling that EBF was not necessary (18.1%; n = 46). Thirty five (13.7%) of the women were constrained by time while the husband's refusal accounted for 1.5% (n = 3) of the reasons for nonpractice of exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusion: Poor knowledge and inaccessibility to health facilities were the main obstacles to postnatal care while the practice of exclusive breastfeeding was limited by the stress and mothers refusal.
  10 3,820 380
Stroke risk factors, subtypes, and 30-day case fatality in Abuja, Nigeria
Nura H Alkali, Sunday A Bwala, Aliu O Akano, Ogugua Osi-Ogbu, Peter Alabi, Ohiole A Ayeni
March-April 2013, 54(2):129-135
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.110051  PMID:23798800
Background: Stroke is the second leading cause of death and the leading cause of adult disability worldwide. A better understanding of stroke risk factors and outcome may help guide efforts at reducing the community burden of stroke. This study aimed to understand stroke risk factors, imaging subtypes, and 30-day outcomes among adult Nigerians. Materials and Methods: We prospectively recruited all patients presenting with acute stroke at the National Hospital Abuja between January 2010 and June 2012. We assessed clinical and laboratory variables, as well as brain computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and carotid Doppler ultrasound scans. We also assessed case fatality and functional outcome at 30 days after stroke. Results: Of 272 patients studied, 168 (61.8%) were males. Age at presentation (mean ± standard deviation) was 56.4 ± 12.7 years in males and 52.9 ± 14.8 years in females ( P = 0.039). Neuroimaging was obtained in 96.7% patients, revealing cerebral infarction (61.8%), intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) (34.8%), and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) (3.4%). Carotid plaques or stenosis ≥50% were detected in 53.2% patients with cerebral infarction. Stroke risk factors included hypertension (82.7%), obesity (32.6%), diabetes (23.5%), hyperlipidemia (18.4%), atrial fibrillation (9.2%), and cigarette smoking (7.7%). At 30 days after stroke, case-fatality rate was 18.8%, whereas modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores for cerebral infarction, ICH, and SAH were 3.71, 4.21, and 4.56, respectively. Atrial fibrillation, a previous stroke, and age older than 50 years were all associated with worse mRS scores at 30 days. Conclusion: Although hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and atrial fibrillation were important stroke risk factors, in many patients, these were detected only after a stroke. While the commonest stroke subtype was cerebral infarction, observed in almost two-third of patients, SAH was associated with the highest case-fatality rate at 30 days of 44.4%. Larger population-based studies may provide additional data on stroke incidence and outcome among Nigerians.
  10 3,894 316
SYMPOSIUM
Hormones in pregnancy
Pratap Kumar, Navneet Magon
October-December 2012, 53(4):179-183
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.107549  PMID:23661874
The endocrinology of human pregnancy involves endocrine and metabolic changes that result from physiological alterations at the boundary between mother and fetus. Progesterone and oestrogen have a great role along with other hormones. The controversies of use of progestogen and others are discussed in this chapter. Progesterone has been shown to stimulate the secretion of Th2 and reduces the secretion of Th1 cytokines which maintains pregnancy. Supportive care in early pregnancy is associated with a significant beneficial effect on pregnancy outcome. Prophylactic hormonal supplementation can be recommended for all assisted reproduction techniques cycles. Preterm labor can be prevented by the use of progestogen. The route of administration plays an important role in the drug's safety and efficacy profile in different trimesters of pregnancy. Thyroid disorders have a great impact on pregnancy outcome and needs to be monitored and treated accordingly. Method of locating review: Pubmed, scopus
  10 3,986 447
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
High-risk of obstructive sleep apnea and excessive daytime sleepiness among commercial intra-city drivers in Lagos metropolis
Obianuju B Ozoh, Njideka U Okubadejo, Maxwell O Akanbi, Michelle G Dania
July-August 2013, 54(4):224-229
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.119607  PMID:24249946
Background: The burden of obstructive sleep apnea among commercial drivers in Nigeria is not known. Aim: To assess the prevalence of high risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) among intra-city commercial drivers. Setting and Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study in three major motor parks in Lagos metropolis. Materials and Methods: Demographic, anthropometric and historical data was obtained. The risk of OSA and EDS was assessed using the STOP BANG questionnaire and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, respectively. Statistical Analysis: The relationship between the OSA risk, EDS risk and past road traffic accident (RTA) was explored using the Pearson's chi square. Independent determinants of OSA risk, EDS risk and past RTA, respectively, were assessed by multiple logistic regression models. Result: Five hundred male commercial drivers (mean age (years) ±SD = 42.36 ± 11.17 and mean BMI (kg/m 2 ) ±SD = 25.68 ± 3.79) were recruited. OSA risk was high in 244 (48.8%) drivers and 72 (14.4%) had EDS. There was a positive relationship between OSA risk and the risk of EDS (Pearson's X 2 = 28.2, P < 0.001). Sixty-one (12.2%) drivers had a past history of RTA but there was no significant relationship between a past RTA and either OSA risk (X 2 = 2.05, P = 0.15) or EDS risk (X 2 = 2.7, P = 0.1), respectively. Abdominal adiposity, regular alcohol use and EDS were independent determinants of OSA risk while the use of cannabis and OSA risk were independent determinants of EDS. No independent risk factor for past RTA was identified. Conclusion: A significant proportion of commercial drivers in Lagos metropolis are at high risk of OSA and EDS.
  9 2,483 182
REVIEW ARTICLE
Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy: A review of current trends
AB Olokoba, OA Obateru, MO Bojuwoye
January-February 2013, 54(1):1-4
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.108884  PMID:23661891
Helicobacter pylori has been implicated in the formation of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric cancer. Eradication of H. Pylori has been recommended as treatment and prevention for these complications. This review is based on a search of Medline, the Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews, and citation lists of relevant publications. Subject heading and key words used include H. Pylori, current treatment and emerging therapy. Only articles in English were included. There has been a substantial decline in the H. pylori eradication rates over the years, despite the use of proton pump inhibitor and bismuth salts for triple and quadruple therapies respectively. The reasons for eradication failure are diverse, among them, antibiotic resistance is an important factor in the treatment failure. Primary resistance to clarithromycin or metronidazole significantly affects the efficacy of eradication therapy. This has led to the introduction of second line, third line "rescue," and sequential therapies for resistant cases. Subsequently, new antibiotic combinations with proton-pump inhibitors and bismuth salts are being studied in the last decade, to find out the antibiotics that are capable of increasing the eradication rates. Some of these antibiotics include Levofloxacin, Doxycycline, Rifaximin, Rifampicin, Furazolidone based therapies. Studies are ongoing to determine the efficacy of Lactoferrin based therapy.
  9 3,691 579
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Autoantibody profile and other immunological parameters in recurrent spontaneous abortion patients
U Shankarkumar, VD Pradhan, MM Patwardhan, A Shankarkumar, K Ghosh
July-September 2011, 52(3):163-166
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.86126  
Background: An autoimmune cause and related immunological alterations resulting in recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) have been suggested in patients with unknown etiology. Materials and Methods: This study evaluated the autoantibody profile and other immunological parameters among RSA patients and normal pregnant women from Mumbai western India. Fifty RSA patients with unknown cause and greater than three consecutive abortions along with 50 normal pregnant women were studied for various auto antibodies such as ANA, anti-dsDNA, ANCA, AECA, 2 micro globulin, anti-HLA antibodies and ACLA using immunofluorescence microlymphocytotoxicity and ELISA. Immunological parameters such as HLA class I monoclonal antibody expression, CD3 (T cell), CD19 (B cell), and CD56 (NK cell) were estimated by flow cytometry. Results: The results revealed 34% positivity of all auto antibodies tested among patients. ANA(12%), ANCA (20%), AECA (24%), ACLA (8%), anti-dsDNA(0%), β2 microglobulin (14%), and anti-HLA antibodies(10%) among RSA patients were identified. An increased expression of HLA class I specific monoclonal antibody (10%) with HLA A3 (16%) specificity were found to correlate with shared HLA alleles among the RSA couples. Among normal pregnant (control) group ANA (2%), ANCA (2%), AECA (3%), ACLA (4%) and increased expression of CD56 with reduced HLA class I monoclonal were observed. Conclusion: Our findings suggest a possible role of various autoantibodies along with the related immunological parameters underlying RSA.
  8 2,338 357
Impact of health education intervention on malaria prevention practices among nursing mothers in rural communities in Nigeria
Olorunfemi Emmanuel Amoran
March-April 2013, 54(2):115-122
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.110046  PMID:23798798
Introduction: Malaria is the most prevalent parasitic endemic disease in Africa, which is preventable, treatable and curable. This study aims to assess the effect of health education intervention on the knowledge, attitude, and prevention practices amongst mothers of under-five children in a rural area of Ogun State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The study design was a quasi-experimental study carried out in Ijebu North Local Government Area of Ogun State. A multistage random sampling technique was used in choosing the required samples and a semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect relevant information. A total of 400 respondents were recruited into the study with 200 each in both the experimental and control groups and were followed up for a period of 3 months. Results: There was no statistically significant differences observed between the experimental and control groups. Knowledge of indoor spraying increased from 14.7% to 58.2% (P < 0.001) and window and door nets increased from 48.3% to 74.8% (P < 0.001). The proportion of those with ITN use increased from 50.8% to 87.4% (P < 0.001) while those with practice of maintaining clean environment also increased from 40.4% to 54.5% (P < 0.001). There were no significant changes in all the practice of malaria prevention methods in the control group. Conclusion: This suggests that malaria control can be significantly improved in rural areas, if the caregivers are adequately empowered through appropriate health education intervention though change in attitude and belief may require a longer and persistent effort.
  8 3,858 294
Knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening among market women in Zaria, Nigeria
Saad Aliyu Ahmed, Kabiru Sabitu, Suleiman Hadejia Idris, Rukaiya Ahmed
September-October 2013, 54(5):316-319
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.122337  PMID:24403709
Background: Cervical cancer is the most common genital cancer and one of the leading causes of death among female population. Fortunately, this cancer is preventable by screening for premalignant lesions but this is rarely provided and hardly utilised. We assessed the knowledge, attitude and utilisation of cervical cancer screening among market women in Sabon Gari, Zaria. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening among market women. A total of 260 women were administered with questionnaires which were both self and interviewer administered. These were analysed using SPSS version 11. Results: Respondents exhibited a fair knowledge of cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening (43.5%); however, their knowledge of risk factors was poor. There was generally good attitude to cervical cancer screening (80.4%), but their level of practice was low (15.4%). Conclusions: There was a fair knowledge of cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening among Nigerian market women in this study, their practice of cervical cancer screening was poor.
  8 10,725 396
Myocardial infarction in young adults-risk factors and pattern of coronary artery involvement
Rajeev Bhardwaj, Arvind Kandoria, Rajesh Sharma
January-February 2014, 55(1):44-47
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.128161  PMID:24970969
Background Coronary artery disease (CAD) mostly occurs in persons older than 45 years of age. In India, CAD manifests almost a decade earlier than in Western countries. This study was done to study the risk factors and angiographic profile in young patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Patients and Methods: One hundred and twenty four consecutive patients presenting with AMI at less than 40 years of age were studied for risk factors. Coronary angiography was done in all. Results: Out of 124 patients, 123 were male. Mean age was 35.94 ± yrs. One hundred and eighteen had ST elevation myocardial infarction (MI) (95.16%) and six had non ST elevation MI (5.84%). Anterior wall MI was present in 88 patients (70.97%), inferior wall MI in 31 patients (25%) and lateral wall MI in five patients (4.03%). Seventy three patients (58.8%) were smoker, 55 were hypertensive (44.35%), 10 were diabetic (8.06%). Family history of CAD was present in 22 (17.7%) patients. Low High-density lipoprotein (HDL) was seen in 53 patients (42.7%), and high triglycerides in 60 patients (48.38%). Significant CAD was found in 88 (70.96%) patients, 13 (10.48%) had normal coronaries. Single vessel disease was seen in 57 patients, two-vessel disease in 15 patients and three-vessel disease in eight patients. Total 125 lesions were seen and left anterior descending (LAD) was the commonest vessel involved, with 78 lesions (62.4%). Conclusion: AMI in young almost exclusively occurs in male, and ST elevation MI is the main presentation. Anterior wall MI is most common, with LAD being involved in around 2/3 patients. Smoking, hypertension, low HDL and high triglycerides are the major risk factors.
  8 2,391 283
A comparison of Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III scoring system in predicting mortality and length of stay at surgical intensive care unit
Mahryar Taghavi Gilani, Majid Razavi, Azadeh Mokhtari Azad
March-April 2014, 55(2):144-147
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.129651  PMID:24791049
Background: In critically ill patients, several scoring systems have been developed over the last three decades. The Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) and the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) are the most widely used scoring systems in the intensive care unit (ICU). The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic accuracy of SAPS II and APACHE II and APACHE III scoring systems in predicting short-term hospital mortality of surgical ICU patients. Materials and Methods: Prospectively collected data from 202 patients admitted to Mashhad University Hospital postoperative ICU were analyzed. Calibration was estimated using the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test. Discrimination was evaluated by using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and area under a ROC curve (AUC). Result: Two hundred and two patients admitted on post-surgical ICU were evaluated. The mean SAPS II, APACHE II, and APACHE III scores for survivors were found to be significantly lower than of non-survivors. The calibration was best for APACHE II score. Discrimination was excellent for APACHE II (AUC: 0.828) score and acceptable for APACHE III (AUC: 0.782) and SAPS II (AUC: 0.778) scores. Conclusion: APACHE II provided better discrimination than APACHE III and SAPS II calibration was good at APACHE II and poor at APACHE III and SAPS II. Use of APACHE II was excellent in this post-surgical ICU.
  8 1,620 195
Application of sigma metrics for the assessment of quality control in clinical chemistry laboratory in Ghana: A pilot study
Justice Afrifa, Seth A Gyekye, William KBA Owiredu, Richard KD Ephraim, Samuel Essien-Baidoo, Samuel Amoah, David L Simpong, Aaron R Arthur
January-February 2015, 56(1):54-58
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.149172  PMID:25657495
Background: Sigma metrics provide a uniquely defined scale with which we can assess the performance of a laboratory. The objective of this study was to assess the internal quality control (QC) in the clinical chemistry laboratory of the University of Cape Cost Hospital (UCC) using the six sigma metrics application. Materials and Methods: We used commercial control serum [normal (L1) and pathological (L2)] for validation of quality control. Metabolites (glucose, urea, and creatinine), lipids [triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)], enzymes [alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (AST)], electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride) and total protein were assessed. Between-day imprecision (CVs), inaccuracy (Bias) and sigma values were calculated for each control level. Results: Apart from sodium (2.40%, 3.83%), chloride (2.52% and 2.51%) for both L1 and L2 respectively, and glucose (4.82%), cholesterol (4.86%) for L2, CVs for all other parameters (both L1 and L2) were >5%. Four parameters (HDL-C, urea, creatinine and potassium) achieved sigma levels >1 for both controls. Chloride and sodium achieved sigma levels >1 for L1 but <1 for L2. In contrast, cholesterol, total protein and AST achieved sigma levels <1 for L1 but >1 for L2. Glucose and ALP achieved a sigma level >1 for both control levels whereas TG achieved a sigma level >2 for both control levels. Conclusion: Unsatisfactory sigma levels (<3) where achieved for all parameters using both control levels, this shows instability and low consistency of results. There is the need for detailed assessment of the analytical procedures and the strengthening of the laboratory control systems in order to achieve effective six sigma levels for the laboratory.
  8 1,738 138
The effect of dietary habits on the development of the recurrent aphthous stomatitis
Bassel Tarakji, Kusai Baroudi, Yaser Kharma
January-March 2012, 53(1):9-11
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.99822  PMID:23271837
Background: The aim was to assess the relationship between the dietary habits and development of recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Materials and Methods: Two groups (30 patients with RAS who have been following dietary habits and not associated with systemic disease or hematologic abnormalities, and the control group consist of 28 patients without recurrent aphthous stomatitis). Results: A Mann-Whitney test (P>0.05) shows no significance difference between the patients with RAS and the control group. Both groups eating similar food such as cheese, cow's milk, tea, lemon, coffee, orange, apple, yoghurt, and tomato, spicy food, but the patients with RAS ate specific foods containing (pH) like; oranges and lemons more frequently than the control group. Conclusion: Dietary habits have no important role in development of RAS but can lay a minor role in the pathogenesis of RAS either by causing hypersensitivity or by deficiency of some vitamins and minerals.
  7 2,193 381
Socioeconomic consequences of HIV/AIDS in the family system
P Taraphdar, T Guha Rray, D Haldar, A Chatterjee, A Dasgupta, B Saha, S Mallik
October-December 2011, 52(4):250-253
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.93798  
Introduction: HIV/AIDS can lead to poverty affecting particularly women and young people and can halt or reverse socioeconomic development of a country. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the socioeconomic consequences of HIV/AIDS within the family. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among patients admitted in in-patient department and those attending integrated counseling and testing centre (ICTC) of School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata. Data were gathered by interviewing the patients by using a predesigned questionnaire. Results: For prolonged duration and severity of disease, higher proportion of indoor patients reported loss of job, decreased family income, increased expenditure for care seeking, and faced greater economic consequences, reflected by selling assets. Loss of job was mainly due to illness (86.8%), disclosure of sero-status (13.2%), and predominantly among skilled workers. Assets were sold mainly to meet the cost of own illness for indoor patients, but more to meet the expenditure for husband's illness, in the case of ICTC patients. High school dropout seen in both groups was mainly due to economic reasons. HIV/AIDS status was known to other members of family for 84.8% of indoor patients out of which 15.4% experienced rejection by family members. Out of 72 ever married women indoor patients whose in-laws were aware of their HIV/AIDS status, 41.7%, 40.9%, and 33.33% reportedly were blamed for spouse's illness, and had strained relation with in-laws and spouse, respectively. Conclusion: Intensive behavior change communication and provision of care and support are required to curb AIDS-related stigma, discrimination, and to maintain physical, mental, and social wellbeing of people living with HIV/AIDS.
  7 2,278 251
Benign breast lesions in an African population: A 25-year histopathological review of 1864 cases
AN Olu-Eddo, Ezekiel Enoghama Ugiagbe
October-December 2011, 52(4):211-216
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.93790  
Objective: The objective of this study was to delineate the prevalence and characterize the histologic pattern of benign breast diseases (BBDs) in the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A 25-year-old (1985-2009) retrospective study of all patients presenting with BBD. Results: During the 25-year-old study period, 1864 cases of BBD constituting 72.4% of all breast lesions were seen. The female to male ratio was 28.6:1. An increasing incidence of BBDs was observed. The overall mean age for BBD was 27.5 years, SD±11.3 with an age range of 9-84 years and a peak age occurrence in the third decade. The single most common lesion was fibroadenoma accounting for 43.1% of cases, followed by fibrocystic change (23.8%) with mean ages of 22.3 years and 30.2 years, respectively. Both lesions had a peak occurrence in the third decade. Other major lesions encountered were sclerosing adenosis (7.3%), atypical ductal hyperplasia (3.6%), and blunt duct adenosis (2.3%). Gynecomastia (2.1%) was the predominant lesion in males. Inflammatory lesions constituted 8.1% of cases while stromal and skin lesions accounted for 1.1% and 0.9% of cases respectively. Conclusion: BBDs constituted 70% of breast lumps and were mostly fibroadenoma and fibrocystic change. BBDs occurred predominantly in young females with a peak in the third decade. Though premalignant lesions of atypical hyperplasia were less common, biopsy of all BBDs should be done to exclude these lesions and routine mammographic screening of at risk individuals instituted to increase their detection.
  7 3,483 395
Rupture of the gravid uterus in a tertiary health facility in the Niger delta region of Nigeria: A 5-year review
TK Nyengidiki, DO Allagoa
October-December 2011, 52(4):230-234
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.93794  
Background: Ruptured uterus is a major life-threatening condition encountered mostly in developing countries and is an index of failure of obstetric care at a point in time in a woman's reproductive career. With worsening economic condition, increasing caesarean section rates, and patients' aversion for operative delivery this condition would still remain a major obstetric matter for discussion. Objective: To identify the incidence, sociodemographic variables, clinical characteristics, causes, and outcome of ruptured uterus at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. Materials and Methods: A 5-year retrospective study of cases of ruptured uterus at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital was carried out. The case notes of 40 patients with uterine rupture during the period 2003-2007 were analyzed. Data collected included sociodemographic characteristics, etiologic factors, clinical presentation, and outcome. Data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel version 2007 and SPSS 14.0 computer software. Results: The incidence of rupture of the gravid uterus was 1:258 deliveries. In patients with rupture of the gravid uterus, 65% (26) of patients were unbooked; 37.5% (15) were aged between 25 and 29 years. A total of 42.5% (17) of patients had secondary education and 21 (52.5%) were housewives. Rupture of a previous scar was the commonest etiologic factor accounting for 32.5% (11). The commonest presentation was abdominal pain in 92.5% of cases. Perinatal mortality and maternal mortality were 80% and 17.5% respectively. Conclusion: Rupture of the gravid uterus still remains a major cause of maternal mortality. Injudicious use of oxytocics should be discouraged in peripheral health facilities and reinforcement of the need for hospital based deliveries in patients with previous caesarean sections should also be intensified to improve outcome.
  7 2,715 302
Oral manifestation of HIV/AIDS infections in paediatric Nigerian patients
Adetokunbo Rafel Adebola, Solomon Ibiyemi Adeleke, Maryam Mukhtar, Otasowie Daniel Osunde, Benjamin Idemudia Akhiwu, Akinola Ladeinde
July-September 2012, 53(3):150-154
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.104385  PMID:23293416
Background: The aims of this study were to determine the pattern and frequency of oral lesions and to compare the prevalence of HIV-related oral lesions in paediatric Nigerian patients on HAART with those not on HAART. Materials and Methods: All patients aged 15 years and below attending the Infectious Disease Clinic of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital with a diagnosis of HIV were consecutively examined in a cross-sectional study over a 2-year period. Information was obtained by history, physical examinations, HIV testing, and enumeration of CD+ T cells. The results are presented. A P-value of <0.05 was considered significant. Results: A total of 105 children comprising 63 males and 42 female who met the inclusion criteria participated in the study, mean age in months was 53.3±42.2, with a mean of 3.4±2.2 for male and 2.8±1.8 for female respectively. Oral lesions occurred in 61.9% of the children Overall, 22 (21.0%) had at least one oral lesion, 43 (41.0%) had multiple lesion. The most common lesion was oral candidiasis (79.1%). The angular cheilitis (43.8%) variant was most frequent. The mean CD4 counts were 1138 cells/mm [3] , 913 cells/mm [3] and 629 cells/mm [3] for those without oral lesion, with single lesion and multiple oral lesions respectively. These differences were not statistically significant (ANOVA: F=0.185, df=2, 80, 82, P=0.831. Patients on HAART comprised about 61.9% and these were found to have reduced risk for development of such oral lesions as angular cheilitis (OR=0.76; 95% CI=0.56-1.02; P=0.03), pseudomembranous candidiasis (OR=0.71; 95% CI=0.54-0.94; P=0.024) and HIV-gingivitis (OR=0.59; 95% CI=0.46-0.75; P=0.001). HAART had some beneficial but insignificant effect on development of HIV-periodonttitis (OR=0.60; 95% CI=0.51-0.70; P=0.09). The chances of occurrence of other oral lesions were not significantly reduced by HAART (Kaposi sarcoma, OR=1.24; 95% CI=0.31-5.01; P=0.47, erythematous candidiasis, OR=1.13; 95% CI=0.62-2.06). Conclusion: HIV-related Oral lesions are frequently seen in HIV-infected Nigerian children. Paediatric patients receiving HAART had significantly lower prevalence of oral lesions, particularly oral candidiasis and HIV-gingivitis.
  7 2,519 261
Household cost of antenatal care and delivery services in a rural community of Kaduna state, northwestern Nigeria
Mohd Nasiq Sambo, Gobir A Abdulrazaq, Anthony F Shamang, Ahmad A Ibrahim
March-April 2013, 54(2):87-91
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.110034  PMID:23798792
Background: Maternal mortality remains a leading cause of death among women of reproductive age. While Nigeria has only two percent of the global population, it contributes 10% to the global maternal mortality burden. Antenatal care (ANC) reduces the incidence of maternal mortality. However, financial capability affects access to antenatal care. Thus, the rural poor are at a higher risk of maternal mortality. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study involving 135 women (pregnant women and those who are 6 weeks postpartum). Structured interviewer-administered questionnaires were used for data collection. Data analysis was carried out using statistical package for social sciences software (version 17). Results: The average amount spent on booking and initial laboratory investigations were N77 (half a dollar) and N316 ($2), respectively. Per ANC visit, average amount spent on drugs and transportation were N229 ($1.5) and N139 ($0.9) respectively. For delivery, the average amount spent was N1500 ($9.6). On an average, ANC plus delivery cost about N3,365.00 ($22). There was a statistically significant association between husband's income and ANC attendance (X 2 = 2.451, df = 2, P = 0.048). Conclusion: Cost of Antenatal care and delivery services were not catastrophic but were a barrier to accessing antenatal care and facility-based delivery services in the study area. ANC attendance was associated with the income of household heads. Pro-poor policies and actions are needed to address this problem, as it will go a long way in reducing maternal mortality in this part of the country.
  7 2,003 293
Integrating cervical cancer screening with HIV care in a district hospital in Abuja, Nigeria
Solomon Odafe, Kwasi Torpey, Hadiza Khamofu, Edward Oladele, Oluwasanmi Adedokun, Otto Chabikuli, Halima Mukaddas, Yelwa Usman, Bolatito Aiyenigba, MacPaul Okoye
May-June 2013, 54(3):176-184
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.114590  PMID:23901180
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus positive (HIV+) women have a higher risk of developing invasive cervical cancer compared with uninfected women. This study aims to document programmatic experience of integrating cervical cancer screening using Visual Inspection and Acetic Acid (VIA) into HIV care as well as to describe patients' characteristics associated with positive VIA findings amongst HIV+ women. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study analysed routine service data collected at the antiretroviral therapy (ART) and cervical cancer screening services. Our program integrated screening for cervical cancer using VIA technique to HIV care and treatment services through a combination of stakeholder engagement, capacity building for health workers, creating a bi-directional referral between HIV and reproductive health (RH) services and provider initiated counselling and screening for cervical cancer. Information on patients' baseline and clinical characteristics were captured using an electronic medical records system and then exported to Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Logistic regression model was used to estimate factors that influence VIA results. Results: A total of 834 HIV+ women were offered VIA screening between April 2010 and April 2011, and 805 (96.5%) accepted it. Complete data was available for 802 (96.2%) women. The mean age at screening and first sexual contact were 32.0 (SD 6.6) and 18.8 (SD 3.5) years, respectively. VIA was positive in 52 (6.5%) women while 199 (24.8%) had a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Of the 199 who had a STI, eight (4.0%) had genital ulcer syndrome, 30 (15.1%) had lower abdominal pain syndrome and 161 (80.9%) had vaginal discharge syndrome. Presence of lower abdominal pain syndrome was found to be a significant predictor of a positive VIA result ( P = 0.001). Women with lower abdominal pain syndrome appeared to be more likely (OR 47.9, 95% CI: 4.8-480.4, P = 0.001) to have a positive VIA result. Conclusion: The high burden of both HIV and cervical cancer in developing countries makes it a necessity for integrating services that offer early detection and treatment for both diseases. The findings from our study suggest that integrating VIA screening into the package of care offered to HIV+ women is feasible and acceptable.
  7 2,683 215
Perception of quality of maternal healthcare services among women utilising antenatal services in selected primary health facilities in Anambra State, Southeast Nigeria
Obiageli F Emelumadu, Ugochukwu Uchenna Onyeonoro, Andrew Ugwunna Ukegbu, Nkiru N Ezeama, Chigozie Ozoemena Ifeadike, Obasi Kanu Okezie
March-April 2014, 55(2):148-155
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.129653  PMID:24791050
Background: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study aimed at assessing antenatal care service attendees' perception of quality of maternal healthcare (MHC) services in Anambra State, southeast Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 310 pregnant women utilising antenatal care (ANC) services in three purposively selected primary health centres (PHCs) in rural communities in Anambra State were studied. Reponses were elicited from the participants selected consecutively over a 4-month period, using a pre-tested, semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics, utilisation and perception of MHC services. Data collected were analysed using SPSS version 17. Results: Findings showed that utilisation of facility for both antenatal (97.0%; 95% CI, 94.4-98.4%) and natal services (92.7%; 95% CI 89.2-95.2%) were quite high. Generally, most of the women were satisfied with MHC services (89.7%). Most of them were satisfied with the staff attitude (85.1%), waiting time (84.1%) and cost of services (79.5%). Being ≥30 years (X2 = 4.61, P = 0.032), married (X2 = 9.70, P = 0.008) and multiparous (X 2 = 9.14, P = 0.028), as well as utilisation of formal health facility for antenatal (X2 = 26.94, P = 0.000) and natal (X2 = 33.42, P = 0.000) services were associated with satisfaction with maternal health services. Conclusions: The study showed high level of satisfaction with quality of maternal health services among antenatal attendees and highlights the need to strengthen interventions that increase uptake of formal MHC services.
  7 5,362 292
Prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in sickle cell anaemia patients of a tertiary hospital in Nigeria
Adedoyin O Dosunmu, Taiwo M Balogun, Olufunke O Adeyeye, Folashade A Daniel, Rachael A Akinola, Josephine A Josephine, Akinsegun A Akinbami, Aba O Sagoe, Babatunde O Onadeko
March-April 2014, 55(2):161-165
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.129661  PMID:24791052
Background: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited haemoglobinopathy characterised by recurrent organ hypoxia-reperfusion cycles which may result in repeated organ damage including the lungs and heart. In SCD, pulmonary hypertension is a known complication that may precede or complicate acute chest syndrome which is often fatal. This study seeks to know the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension and its relationship with clinical and laboratory parameters in sickle cell disease patients attending a tertiary hospital in Lagos. Materials and Methods: This was a case - control study involving patients with sickle cell disease recruited from adult sickle cell clinic of Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja and HbAA controls matched for age and sex from a tertiary educational institution in Lagos. Both the patients and controls were subjected to echocardiography and pulmonary hypertension was deduced from their cardiac tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity. Other parameters measured were age, body mass index, full blood count, red cell indices, foetal haemoglobin, chest X-ray, liver function tests, lactate dehydrogenase and pulmonary function tests. Consenting patients were 56 HbSS in steady state and 28 HbAA controls matched for age and sex. Data was analysed using SPSS version 16.0. Results: The mean age of patients was 22 ± 6 years. In two 2 of 56 (3.6%) of the participants with sickle cell disease, the pulmonary artery pressure was > 25mmHg and there was significant difference in the mean of the pulmonary artery pressure of the control and that of the patients (P-value 0.013). Also, using the appropriate correlation tests, there was significant relationship between the pulmonary artery pressure and lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate transferase and haematocrit in patients with sickle cell disease. Conclusion: Sickle cell disease is an independent cause of pulmonary artery hypertension. Variation in cardiovascular reactions to recurrent hyperhaemolysis and hyperdynamic state in sickle cell disease may explain differences in the development of cardiac complications. Exploration of these reactions may reveal other therapeutic measures to prevent complications in sickle cell disease. Clinical assessment of adult patients with sickle cell disease should include echocardiography.
  7 2,282 192
REVIEW ARTICLES
Aetio-pathogenesis of breast cancer
Imran Haruna Abdulkareem
November-December 2013, 54(6):371-375
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.126284  PMID:24665149
This is a literature review on the aetiology and pathogenesis of breast cancer, which is the most common cancer worldwide, and the second leading cause of cancer death, especially in Western countries. Several aetiological factors have been implicated in its pathogenesis, and include age, genetics, family history, diet, alcohol, obesity, lifestyle, physical inactivity, as well as endocrine factors. These factors act separately or together in the causation of breast cancer. More recently, triple negative breast cancer has been described in certain categories of patients and is associated with poorer prognosis and earlier recurrence compared with the conventional breast cancer. Therefore, adequate knowledge of these factors is important in identifying high risk groups and individuals, which will help in screening, early detection and follow-up. This will help to decrease the morbidity and mortality from this life-threatening disease.
  7 1,851 293
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