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   2009| January-March  | Volume 50 | Issue 1  
    Online since November 16, 2010

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Hepatitis B virus infection in Nigeria - A review
GO Emechebe, IJ Emodi, AN Ikefuna, GC Ilechukwu, WC Igwe, OS Ejiofor, CA Ilechukwu
January-March 2009, 50(1):18-22
Background:Hepatitis B virus infection is a pandemic and chronic infection may lead to chronic liver diseases which are often lethal. This review was done to assess the status of hepatitis B virus infection in Nigeria. Materials and Method:Source of information was mainly from published works in Nigeria and elsewhere. The information was extracted over period of 5 months from May to December 2007. Result: Since over 30years when pioneer works were done in Nigeria to the recent tunes the prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection has remained very high. In Nigeria, the transmission of hepatitis B virus occurs mainly during childhood and all the risk factors (like blood transfusion, sexual promiscuity, lower socioecomic status etc) implicated elsewhere in the spread of the virus in the general population also play role in Nigeria. Conclusion: Reduction in the of hepatitis B virus infection could be achieved by public enlightenment campaign, mass immunization of the children and adults at risk while antiviral drugs and immunostimulatory therapy should be provided for those already infected.
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Hydrocelectomy: Experience with inguinal approach in the adult
CC Nweze
January-March 2009, 50(1):12-13
The usual approach for hydrocelectomy in the adult is the scrotal route. The most troublesome problem following this method is a very discomforting scrotal swelling which creates much difficulty for the patient and the managing surgeon. This problem can be avoided by performing hydrocelectomy with a procedure using the inguinal approach in the adult. Apart from almost eliminating this post-operative problem of scrotal discomfort from marked swelling this method enables inspection, discovering of testicular malignancy and more safely taking appropriate actions on it. It also enables easy inspection, discovery and performance of appropriate actions on any co-existing inguinal hernia.
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Prophylactic antibiotic for pacemaker surgery: What is optimal duration?
MO Thomas, EO Ogunleye
January-March 2009, 50(1):9-11
Background:Pacemaker infections occur worldwide. There is no report of any research on prophylactic antibiotic usage for Pacemaker Surgery in Nigeria. There is also no agreement on duration of prophylactic antibiotics for pacemaker surgery. Aims and Objectives: We sought to determine the efficacy of Prophylactic Ceftriaxone in Pacemaker Surgery using the short and long regimen. Methodology:Our team did a series of transvenous pacemaker insertions over a 7-year period. Some of the patients were given prophylactic ceftriaxone for 3 days while others were given for seven days. Aseptic techniques were strictly adopted. They were followed up for varying periods looking out for possible pacemaker related infections. Results:Out of the 100 pacemakers inserted, infection occurred in 3 patients. One of them, a bed-ridden patient developed severe pocket infection necessitating explantation and replacement 3 weeks later. Conclusions: We noted with satisfaction that short regime of prophylactic parentral ceftriaxone is effective in preventing pacemaker infection and there is no need for the long regimen.
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Anorexia nervosa in a Nigerian - A case report
FT Unuhu, NW Ebiti, GO Oju, SB Aremu
January-March 2009, 50(1):23-24
Background:Anorexia Nervosa has been reported to be uncommon among the non-western populations. However the frequency of its presentation has increased world-wide. Method/Result:The case of a 19year old secondary school leaver with 2 year history of refusing food, claiming that she is too fat and progressive weight loss is presented. Conclusion:Anorexia Nervosa is frequently seen among the western population. However it may not be as rare in non-western societies as previously reported.
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The prevalence of prediabetes among hypertensive patients in Enugu, southeast Nigeria
I. S. I. Ogbu, C. I. Neboh
January-March 2009, 50(1):14-17
Objective: To determine the prevalence of prediabetes among hypertensive patients under treatment. Research Design: One hundred hypertensive patients under drug treatment, 40 men and 60 women, aged above 35years and 100 age and sex-matched apparently healthy subjects were used for the study. The patients were on aspirin, nifidepine, frusemide and felodipine as mainline drugs. Venous blood samples were collected after over-night fast and 2 hours after 75g dextrose ingestion. Main Findings:Twenty-five patients, 10 males 25% and 15 females 25%, had prediabetes giving a prevalence of 25%. Fourteen of them (14%). 4 men and 10 women, had impaired fasting glucose only and 5 (5%) patients; 2 men and 3 women had unpaired glucose tolerance only. Six patients (6%) had both IFG and IGT. Unreported diabetes was detected in 14 patients (14%), among whom were 7 men and 7 women. Fifteen patients, (15%), had IFG only, and 5 (5%) patients had IGT only. The mean fasting plasma insulin of the patients was 22.2±19.6 μU/ml and the HOMA-IR was 5.1±4.5. Conclusion: The prevalence of prediabetes among the patients did not exceed reported range but the percentage of unreported diabetes was high. The results highlighted the importance of screening for prediabetes in the hypertensive patient population of the study locality. However, there were no significant differences between the parameters of the patients with IFG and IGT, (p>0.05)
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Plasmid profile of bacteria isolated from tears of HIV/AIDS patients
OB Ajayi, JA Ebeigbe
January-March 2009, 50(1):4-8
Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine the presence and transfer of plasmids in bacteria isolated from tears of HIV/AIDS patients, their sensitivity and resistance to commercially available antibiotics. Design: This was a cross sectional experimental study. Materials and methods:One hundred tears samples from HIV/ AIDS patients and fifty tears samples from HIV/AIDS negative patients were screened for resistance to 14 commercially available antibiotics using disc diffusion method. Result: Three multiple antibiotics resistant strains of staphylococcus aureus and four multiple antibiotics resistance strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were identified. staphylococcus aureus strains showed 100% resistance to Ampiclox and erythromycin, 66.6% to Perfloxacin, amoxicillin and septrin, 33.33% to ciprofloxacin. Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains showed 100% resistance to streptomycin, amoxicillin, septrin and chloramphenicol. Only I strain of staphylococcus aureus showed presence of plasmid which was not transferable to Escherichia coli because of presence of disulphide cross-­linked cell wall. Other strains of both staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa remained resistant after curing . Conclusion: Further studies are needed in this area to show if antibiotic resistance in HIV/AIDS positive patients could be as a result of plasmid as well as other factors.
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Knowledge and attitude of eye hospital patients towards chronic open angle glaucoma in Onitsha
LO Onyekwe, MC Okosa, AI Apakarna
January-March 2009, 50(1):1-3
Introduction:Chronic Open Angle Glaucoma is the second commonest cause of blindness in the world and a leading cause of irreversible blindness. Most people with glaucoma are usually unaware that they have the disease until significant loss of vision has occurred. We aim to determine the knowledge and attitude of glaucoma amongst patients aged 30 years and above. Method:Semi-structured questionnaires were administered to consecutive patients seen in Guinness Eye Hospital, Onitsha, 1st to 30 th November 2008. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) computer software. Result:Four hundred and fifty-five (86.7% of respondents) patients knew about glaucoma. The male/female ratio was 1:1.1. Relations and friends topped the list of sources of information for glaucoma. 180(39.5%) of the respondents had no idea regarding the possible causes of glaucoma. 31.8% of the patients knew that glaucoma ran in families. Fear of visual loss was the main cause of rejection of surgery as a treatment modality. Conclusion:The study showed that knowledge of glaucoma is still very low in this environment. Fear of visual loss and cost are the major reasons for non-acceptance of surgery as a mode of treatment. The eye care providers should evolve a culture of useful health education and couseling regarding glaucoma, an irreversibly blindness disease.
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