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   2012| July-September  | Volume 53 | Issue 3  
    Online since December 6, 2012

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Prevalence and pattern of bacteria and intestinal parasites among food handlers in the Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria
CO Ifeadike, OC Ironkwe, P. O. U. Adogu, CC Nnebue, OF Emelumadu, SA Nwabueze, CF Ubajaka
July-September 2012, 53(3):166-171
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.104389  PMID:23293419
Background: In developing countries, biological contaminants largely bacteria and other parasites constitute the major causes of food-borne diseases often transmitted through food, water, nails, and fingers contaminated with faeces. Accordingly, food-handlers with poor personal hygiene could be potential sources of infections by these micro-organisms. Objective: This study was aimed at determining the prevalence and pattern of bacteria and intestinal parasites among food handlers in the Federal Capital Territory. Materials and Methods: The study was a descriptive one in which a multistage sampling technique was employed to select 168 food handlers of various types. Subjects' stool, urine, and fingernail analyses were carried out and the result scientifically scrutinized. Results: Fingernail bacteria isolates include: E. Coli (1.8%), coagulase-negative staphylococcus (17.9%), Staphylococcus aureus(7.1%), Klebsiella species (2.4%), Serratia species (1.2%), Citrobacter species (1.2%), and Enterococcus species (1.8%). The subjects' stool samples tested positive: For A. lumbricoides (14.9%), T. trichuria (1.8%), S. starcolaris (3.0%), E. histolytica (10.7%), G. lambilia (1.8%), S. mansoni (1.2%), and Taenia species (4.8%). Furthermore, 42.3% and 15.5% of the stool specimen tested positive for Salmonella and Shigella species, respectively. Conclusion: Food establishments should screen and treat staff with active illness, and regularly train them on good personal and workplace hygiene practices.
  5,698 396 10
Clinical profile and outcomes of adult patients with hyperglycemic emergencies managed at a tertiary care hospital in Nigeria
Andrew E Edo
July-September 2012, 53(3):121-125
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.104378  PMID:23293409
Background: To document the clinical profile and treatment outcomes of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) managed in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective review of hospital records of patients with DKA and HHS admitted to a tertiary care hospital over a 24-month period. Data on demographics, precipitating factors, clinical features, serum electrolytes, duration of hospital admission, and mortality were extracted. Results: Eighty-four patients were included in the study. Fifty (59.5%) were females. Ten (11.9%) persons had type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and 74 (88.1%) had type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There were 35 cases of DKA and 49 cases of HHS. Nine patients with T1DM presented in DKA and one in HHS. Forty-eight (55.2%) subjects were previously not diagnosed of diabetes mellitus (DM). The mean±SEM age, casual blood glucose, calculated serum osmolality, and duration of hospital stay of the study subjects were 50.59±1.63 years, 517.98±11.69 mg/dL, 313.59±1.62 mOsmol/L, and 18.85±1.78 days, respectively. Patients with T2DM were significantly older than those with T1DM (54.32±1.34 vs. 23.40±1.38 years, P<0.001).The precipitating factors were poor drug compliance 23 (27.4%), malaria 12 (14.3), urinary tract infection 10 (11.9%), lobar pneumonia 4 (4.8%), and unidentifiable in 29 (34.5%). Common electrolyte derangements were hyponatremia, 31 (36.9%) and hypokalemia 21 (25%). Mortality rate was 3.6%. Conclusion: DKA is common in patients with T2DM.Over 50% of the patients presenting with DKA or HHS have no previous diagnosis of DM. Non-compliance, malaria, and infections are important precipitants. Mortality rate is low.
  4,823 343 4
Ruptured rudimentary horn at 22 weeks
Hansa Dhar
July-September 2012, 53(3):175-177
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.104391  PMID:23293421
Rudimentary horn is a developmental anomaly of the uterus. Pregnancy in a non-communicating rudimentary horn is very difficult to diagnose before it ruptures. A case of undiagnosed rudimentary horn pregnancy at 22 weeks presented to Nizwa regional referral hospital in shock with features of acute abdomen. Chances of rupture in first or second trimester are increased with catastrophic haemorrhage leading to increased maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Management of such cases is a challenge till today due to diagnostic dilemma. Expertise in ultrasonography and early resort to surgical management is life saving in such cases.
  3,917 113 4
Assessment of the effect of probiotic curd consumption on salivary pH and streptococcus mutans counts
R Sudhir, P Praveen, A Anantharaj, Karthik Venkataraghavan
July-September 2012, 53(3):135-139
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.104382  PMID:23293413
Background: Antimicrobial methods of controlling dental caries that include probiotic agents can play a valuable role in establishing caries control in children at moderate to high risk for developing dental caries. Several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of use of various Probiotic products including curd. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of short-term consumption of probiotic curd containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and normal curd on salivary Streptococcus Mutans counts, as well as salivary pH. Materials and Methods: Forty, caries-free, 10-12 years old children were selected and randomly allocated to two groups. Test Group consisted of 20 children who consumed 200ml of probiotic curd daily for 30 days. Control Group consisted of 20 children who were given 200ml of regular curd for 30 days. Salivary pH and salivary Streptococcus Mutans counts were recorded at baseline and after 30 days and statistically compared using the Student's t-test. Results: Consumption of probiotic curd resulted in a statistically significant reduction in S. Mutans colony counts (P<0.001) as compared to regular curd. However, there was a slight reduction in pH (P>0.05) in both the groups. Conclusion: Short-term consumption of probiotic curds can reduce oral S. Mutans counts. However, this caused a slight reduction in salivary pH.
  2,996 359 3
The renal concentrating mechanism and the clinical consequences of its loss
Emmanuel I Agaba, Mark Rohrscheib, Antonios H Tzamaloukas
July-September 2012, 53(3):109-115
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.104376  PMID:23293407
The integrity of the renal concentrating mechanism is maintained by the anatomical and functional arrangements of the renal transport mechanisms for solute (sodium, potassium, urea, etc) and water and by the function of the regulatory hormone for renal concentration, vasopressin. The discovery of aquaporins (water channels) in the cell membranes of the renal tubular epithelial cells has elucidated the mechanisms of renal actions of vasopressin. Loss of the concentrating mechanism results in uncontrolled polyuria with low urine osmolality and, if the patient is unable to consume (appropriately) large volumes of water, hypernatremia with dire neurological consequences. Loss of concentrating mechanism can be the consequence of defective secretion of vasopressin from the posterior pituitary gland (congenital or acquired central diabetes insipidus) or poor response of the target organ to vasopressin (congenital or nephrogenic diabetes insipidus). The differentiation between the three major states producing polyuria with low urine osmolality (central diabetes insipidus, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and primary polydipsia) is done by a standardized water deprivation test. Proper diagnosis is essential for the management, which differs between these three conditions.
  3,032 320 4
The role of doppler ultrasound in high risk pregnancy: A comparative study
Maha Messawa, Ehsan Ma'ajeni, Maazin H Daghistani, Aqueela Ayaz, Mian Usman Farooq
July-September 2012, 53(3):116-120
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.104377  PMID:23293408
Background: The objective was to determine the effectiveness of Doppler velocimetry results in the management of high-risk pregnancy. Materials and Methods: This cohort study was conducted from January 2005 to December 2006 in Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Alnoor Specialist Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia. A total of 200 high-risk pregnant women with gestational age >28 weeks were selected for the study and divided into group A (100) subjected to Doppler velocimetry and group B (100) without Doppler velocimetry. Standard management protocols were followed in all cases. The primary outcome measures were mode of delivery and gestational age at the time of delivery. The secondary outcome measures were prenatal and neonatal complications. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: Preterm deliveries, preterm as well as full-term neonatal admissions were more frequent in group A than those in group B, i.e., (39% vs. 26%), (56% vs. 88%) (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.04-0.7), and (30% vs. 57%) (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.2-0.7), respectively. Similarly preterm and full-term neonatal deaths were rare in group A than those in group B, i.e., (9% vs. 78%) (OR 0.1, 95% CI 0.02-0.7), and (6% vs. 29%) (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.03-1.8), respectively. Emergency caesarean section rate was rare in the subjects with normal Doppler than those with abnormal Doppler (48% vs. 100%) (OR 0.1, 95% CI 0.03-0.4) as well as in group B (48% vs. 82%) (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.4). Conclusion: Doppler studies in high-risk pregnancies are more beneficial in the management of perinatal as well as neonatal management.
  2,976 323 -
Oral manifestation of HIV/AIDS infections in paediatric Nigerian patients
Adetokunbo Rafel Adebola, Solomon Ibiyemi Adeleke, Maryam Mukhtar, Otasowie Daniel Osunde, Benjamin Idemudia Akhiwu, Akinola Ladeinde
July-September 2012, 53(3):150-154
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.104385  PMID:23293416
Background: The aims of this study were to determine the pattern and frequency of oral lesions and to compare the prevalence of HIV-related oral lesions in paediatric Nigerian patients on HAART with those not on HAART. Materials and Methods: All patients aged 15 years and below attending the Infectious Disease Clinic of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital with a diagnosis of HIV were consecutively examined in a cross-sectional study over a 2-year period. Information was obtained by history, physical examinations, HIV testing, and enumeration of CD+ T cells. The results are presented. A P-value of <0.05 was considered significant. Results: A total of 105 children comprising 63 males and 42 female who met the inclusion criteria participated in the study, mean age in months was 53.3±42.2, with a mean of 3.4±2.2 for male and 2.8±1.8 for female respectively. Oral lesions occurred in 61.9% of the children Overall, 22 (21.0%) had at least one oral lesion, 43 (41.0%) had multiple lesion. The most common lesion was oral candidiasis (79.1%). The angular cheilitis (43.8%) variant was most frequent. The mean CD4 counts were 1138 cells/mm [3] , 913 cells/mm [3] and 629 cells/mm [3] for those without oral lesion, with single lesion and multiple oral lesions respectively. These differences were not statistically significant (ANOVA: F=0.185, df=2, 80, 82, P=0.831. Patients on HAART comprised about 61.9% and these were found to have reduced risk for development of such oral lesions as angular cheilitis (OR=0.76; 95% CI=0.56-1.02; P=0.03), pseudomembranous candidiasis (OR=0.71; 95% CI=0.54-0.94; P=0.024) and HIV-gingivitis (OR=0.59; 95% CI=0.46-0.75; P=0.001). HAART had some beneficial but insignificant effect on development of HIV-periodonttitis (OR=0.60; 95% CI=0.51-0.70; P=0.09). The chances of occurrence of other oral lesions were not significantly reduced by HAART (Kaposi sarcoma, OR=1.24; 95% CI=0.31-5.01; P=0.47, erythematous candidiasis, OR=1.13; 95% CI=0.62-2.06). Conclusion: HIV-related Oral lesions are frequently seen in HIV-infected Nigerian children. Paediatric patients receiving HAART had significantly lower prevalence of oral lesions, particularly oral candidiasis and HIV-gingivitis.
  2,886 265 7
Reliability of admission cardiotocography for intrapartum monitoring in low resource setting
Hafizur Rahman, Prachi Renjhen, Sudip Dutta
July-September 2012, 53(3):145-149
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.104384  PMID:23293415
Background To evaluate the role of admission cardiotocography in intrapartum patients in detecting fetal hypoxia already present and to correlate the results of admission cardiotocography with perinatal outcome. Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study conducted in the Labor and Maternity ward during the period 2007-2009. The study included 176 pregnant women (both high risk and low risk), admitted to the emergency department or through the outpatient department with period of gestation ≥36 weeks, in first stage of labor with fetus in cephalic presentation. All of them were subjected to an admission test, a 20 min recording of fetal heart rate and uterine contractions on cardiotocograph machine at the time of admission. Results: The results of the admission test were 'reactive' in 82.38%, 'equivocal' in 10.22%, and 'ominous' in 7.38% women. Women with the reactive admission test had low risk of intrapartum fetal distress (6.9%) as compared to 39.9% in the equivocal and 84.6% in the ominous group (P<0.001). Incidence of moderate to thick meconium stained liqor were more in ominous (61.5%) and equivocal group (33.3%) in compared to reactive group (4.8%) (P<0.001). Incidence of NICU admission was also significantly high (62%) in babies delivered from mother with ominous test group compared to those with equivocal (28%) and reactive test (3.45%) group babies. Neonatal mortality was also seen in babies born to mothers with equivocal (5.5%) and ominous (7.6%) admission test groups. Operative delivery for fetal distress was required in only 5.5% (8 of 145) woman of the reactive group, in 27.8% (5 of 18) woman of the equivocal group and in 84.6% (11 of 13) women of the ominous group. Conclusion: The admission cardiotocography is a simple non-invasive test that can serve as screening tool to detect fetal distress already present or likely to develop and prevent unnecessary delay in intervention. The test has high specificity and can help in 'triaging' fetuses in obstetric wards of developing countries with a heavy workload and limited resources.
  2,770 197 2
Multidrug-resistant acinetobacter infection and their susceptibility patterns in a tertiary care hospital
Kalidas Rit, Rajdeep Saha
July-September 2012, 53(3):126-128
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.104379  PMID:23293410
Background: Antibiotic-resistant Acinetobacter nosocomial infection is a leading problem. It acts as an opportunistic pathogen to cause a wide spectrum of infection including nosocomial pneumonia, meningitis, endocarditis, skin and soft tissue infections, urinary tract infection, conjunctivitis, burn wound infection and bacteremia. Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter infection creates a great problem in hospital setting. Materials and Methods: The clinical specimens obtained from ICU and different surgical and medical wards were investigated using standard microbiological techniques to know the distribution of and their resistant profile. Antimicrobial resistance was studied using the modified Kirby Bauer disk diffusion technique following the CLSI protocol. Results: Major infections found in different medical wards, surgical wards and ICU were due to Acinetobacter baumannii (74.02%), A. lowfii (14.2%), A. haemolyticus (7.79%), A. junii (3.8%) among Acinetobacter spices. Acinetobacter showed increased resistant against majority of commercially available drugs imipenem (5.2%), meropenem (9.75%), piperacillin-tazobactum (18.2%), netilmicin (16.24%), amikacin (14.29%), ceftazidime (74.1%), gentamicin (70.13%), ofloxacin (42.21%). Conclusion : A. baumannii was found to be associated with UTI, RTI, septicemia, bacteremia, and meningitis and wound infection. A. baumannii displayed higher resistance to more number of antibiotics than other nosocomial pathogens from ICU.
  2,556 379 5
Febrile seizures in Kaduna, north western Nigeria
EE Eseigbe, SJ Adama, P Eseigbe
July-September 2012, 53(3):140-144
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.104383  PMID:23293414
Background: Febrile seizure is the most common seizure of childhood and has a good prognosis. However its presentation is fraught with poor management, with grave consequences, in our environment. Thus a review of its current status is important. Objective: To review the status of febrile seizures in Kaduna metropolis. Materials and Methods: A review of cases seen in the Department of Paediatrics, 44 Nigeria Army Reference Hospital, Kaduna between June 2008 and June 2010. Results: Out of the 635 cases admitted in the department 17 (2.7%) fulfilled the criteria for febrile seizures. There were 11 Males and 6 Females (M: F, 1.8:1). Age range was from 9 months to 5 years with a mean of 2.2 years ± 1.1 and peak age of 3 years. Twelve (70.6%) were in the upper social classes (I-III). Fever, convulsion, catarrh and cough were major presenting symptoms. Incidence of convulsion was least on the 1st day of complaint. Fourteen (82.4%) of the cases were simple febrile seizures while 3 were complex. There was a positive family history in 5 (29.4%) of the cases. Eleven (64.7%) had orthodox medication at home, before presentation, 5 (29.4%) consulted patient medicine sellers and 7 (41.7%) received traditional medication as part of home management. Malaria and acute respiratory infections were the identifiable causes. Standard anti-malaria and anti-biotic therapy were instituted, where indicated. All recovered and were discharged. Conclusion: There was a low prevalence of febrile seizures among the hospitalized children and a poor pre-hospitalization management of cases. It highlighted the need for improved community awareness on the prevention and management of febrile seizures.
  2,629 209 1
Awareness and knowledge of human immunodeficiency virus post exposure prophylaxis among Nigerian Family Physicians
Patricia A Agaba, Emmanuel I Agaba, Amaka N Ocheke, Comfort A Daniyam, Maxwell O Akanbi, Edith N Okeke
July-September 2012, 53(3):155-160
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.104386  PMID:23293417
Background: To determine the level of awareness and knowledge of HIV postexposure prophylaxis (HIV PEP) and determinants of adequate knowledge among Family Physicians in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey conducted among 175 Family Physicians at two national conferences. Results: Majority (97.7%) of the respondents was aware of the concept of HIV PEP and 99.4% believed it was effective in preventing HIV transmission. Over two third of our respondents had been exposed to NSI; however, less than 25% of those exposed received PEP. There was high level of knowledge of the various high-risk body fluids as well as types of high-risk exposures. 93.9% of our respondents knew that HIV PEP should commence within 1 h of exposure, 83.3% knew the correct duration of HIV PEP, but only 57.0% knew the ideal PEP regimen for high-risk exposures. The total mean score for our respondents was 17.8±2.9 with 79.4% having an adequate score. Being a junior doctor and male sex were associated with adequate knowledge. Conclusion: This study shows that despite high levels of awareness and knowledge of HIV PEP, access to its use among family physicians in Nigeria is still sub-optimal.
  1,999 235 8
Leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata in a Nigerian woman
Cyril C Dim, Sunday P Akogu, Hyginus U Ezegwui, Daniel B Olusina
July-September 2012, 53(3):172-174
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.104390  PMID:23293420
Leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata (LPD) is a rare condition. A 48-year-old multiparous woman was referred because of an incidental ultrasound finding suggestive of LPD. She had a 6-year past history of use of combined oral contraceptive pills. LPD was also suspected at laparotomy and confirmed by histology. She had total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo ophorectomy and infracolic omentectomy. Patient was being followed-up. LSD is a rare gynecological condition which can pose a diagnostic challenge. Removal of estrogen sources as was done for the patient is the mainstay of treatment. Patient follow-up is very important because of the risk of malignant transformation.
  1,884 134 1
Audit of an urban paediatric emergency department visits
Zohair J Gazzaz, Khalid O Dhafar, Othman Maimini, Mian Usman Farooq, Iftikhar Ahmad
July-September 2012, 53(3):129-131
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.104380  PMID:23293411
Background: This study aimed to highlight the health seeking behavior of children in an Emergency Department (ED). Materials and Methods: Retrospective files review of ED was done for the month of July, 2008. Data about the children ≤12 years of age was gathered. Results: In one month period a total 21000 patients visited our ED, out of them 6120 (29%) were children. Males, Saudis and children of (1-6 years) were more frequent, i.e., 3540 (57.8%), 5760 (94.1%) and 3180 (52%), respectively. Majority of patients visited in shift "2", i.e., 15:30 hours to 23:30 hours. Among the patients "diseases of respiratory system" were found more frequent 4170 (68.1%) and main diagnosis was "acute upper respiratory tract infection" 3300 (53.9%). Non-urgent cases were 2020 (33%) while 244 (4%) were admitted. Conclusion: Young children as well as non-urgent cases were predominant. Evening shift was the busiest one.
  1,739 190 1
Management of incidental adnexal masses on caesarean section
Hüseyin Cengiz, Cihan Kaya, Murat Ekin, Ali Yesil, Levent Yasar
July-September 2012, 53(3):132-134
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.104381  PMID:23293412
Background: The reported incidence of adnexal masses during pregnancy vary from 1 in 81 pregnancies to 1 in 8000 pregnancies. There is still a debate on management of incidental adnexal masses during the caesarean section concerning the risk of this additional procedure on postoperative morbidity and mortality. The aim of our study was to investigate the management of incidental adnexal masses which were observed during caesarean section in a tertiary health care centre. Materials and Methods: The medical records of the patients who had incidental adnexal masses during caesarean section at Bakirkoy Dr. Sadi Konuk Teaching and Research Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology from January 2006 to September 2011 were evaluated retrospectively. The data was processed with the SPSS 16.0 statistical software. Results: The number of total live births was 17341 and 6624 of them were done by caesarean section (31%). There were 38 cases of incidental adnexal masses which were discovered at caesarean section. The most common pathologic diagnosis of the masses were paraovarian-paratubal cysts with the rate of 23.7% (n=9). Cystectomy procedure during caesarean section did not alter the morbidity of the patient. Conclusions: In conclusion for detecting adnexal masses during pregnancy follow-up of growth rate of adnexal mass will be a useful reference during the observation period if ideally all pregnant women have a first-trimester ultrasound examination with regular adnexa check-up.
  1,527 227 2
Does any relationship exist between self reported gingival bleeding, oral health perception, practices and concerns?
Clement C Azodo, Patrick I Ojehanon
July-September 2012, 53(3):161-165
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.104387  PMID:23293418
Background: The objective was to determine the relationship between self-reported gingival bleeding, oral health perception, practices and concerns. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional survey among undergraduates of University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria was conducted between April and May, 2011 using a self-administered 21-item structured questionnaire. Data analysis was done using Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences and P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: Out of the 400 questionnaires that were distributed, 338 were returned filled giving a retrieval rate of 84.5%. About three-quarters (71.3%) of the respondents were younger than 22 years. Males constituted 65.1% while the remaining 34.9% were females. The prevalence of self-reported gingival bleeding among respondents in this study was 12.7%. Individuals with gingival bleeding were significantly more likely to rate their dental and gingival health as fair/poor, use strong brushing stroke during tooth brushing and report worsening condition of teeth despite daily tooth brushing, express worry about the gingival color and less likely to be satisfied about the appearance of their teeth and to have received professional instruction on tooth brushing. Conclusion: Data from this survey revealed an established relationship between gingival bleeding, perceived dental and gingival health, tooth brushing force, professional instruction on tooth brushing, perception of the condition of teeth in relation to daily tooth brushing, worry about the color of gingiva, and satisfaction with the appearance of the teeth.
  1,507 136 2
Ethical dilemma: Dental patient with HIV
Poramate Pitak-Arnnop, Kittipong Dhanuthai, Alexander Hemprich, Niels Christian Pausch
July-September 2012, 53(3):178-178
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.104393  PMID:23293422
  1,174 141 -