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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2015| January-February  | Volume 56 | Issue 1  
    Online since January 13, 2015

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Serum level of copper in patients with coronary artery disease
Babak Bagheri, Negin Akbari, Sasan Tabiban, Valiallah Habibi, Vahid Mokhberi
January-February 2015, 56(1):39-42
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.149169  PMID:25657492
Background: Atherosclerotic disease is the most important cause of mortality in the world. Oxidation is an important pathway in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD) through oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and free radical formation. Copper (Cu) is an essential micronutrient for enzymes that catalyse LDL oxidation reactions. Therefore, an evaluation of Cu in the atherosclerotic disease is important. Materials and Methods: In this study, 334 subjects without recent cardiac event and history of collagen vascular or infectious disease were investigated. All patients divided into four groups to evaluate severity of CAD according to Syntax scoring system. All groups were matched in cardiovascular risk factors. Results: The serum level of Cu was significantly higher in total atherosclerotic groups than normal group (P value = 0.001) and significantly increased with severity of atherosclerosis. Conclusion: The finding indicated that the serum level of Cu is higher in atherosclerotic patients and it increases with severity of atherosclerosis. Therefore, it may be possible that the basic relationship exist between serum Cu level and atherosclerosis and an association between Cu level and severity of atherosclerosis.
  9 2,200 99
Coexistence of JAK2 and BCR-ABL mutation in patient with myeloproliferative neoplasm
Abdulaziz Hassan, Livingstone Gayus Dogara, Ahmadu Aliyu Babadoko, Sani Awwalu, Aisha Indo Mamman
January-February 2015, 56(1):74-76
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.149177  PMID:25657500
The World Health Organisation (WHO) classifies myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) into BCR-ABL positive chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML Ph + ) and Ph MPN. The JAK2 V617F mutation is specific for Ph MPN and occurs in approximately 50% of primary myelofibrosis. Earlier reports suggest that the occurrence of JAK2 and BCR-ABL mutations are mutually exclusive. However, recent reports have documented the coexistence of BCR-ABL and JAK2 mutation in the same patient mostly following treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). We thus report a 60-year-old male with atypical clinical and laboratory features of MPN and the presence of both BCR-ABL and JAK2 Mutations.
  8 2,690 125
Application of sigma metrics for the assessment of quality control in clinical chemistry laboratory in Ghana: A pilot study
Justice Afrifa, Seth A Gyekye, William KBA Owiredu, Richard KD Ephraim, Samuel Essien-Baidoo, Samuel Amoah, David L Simpong, Aaron R Arthur
January-February 2015, 56(1):54-58
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.149172  PMID:25657495
Background: Sigma metrics provide a uniquely defined scale with which we can assess the performance of a laboratory. The objective of this study was to assess the internal quality control (QC) in the clinical chemistry laboratory of the University of Cape Cost Hospital (UCC) using the six sigma metrics application. Materials and Methods: We used commercial control serum [normal (L1) and pathological (L2)] for validation of quality control. Metabolites (glucose, urea, and creatinine), lipids [triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)], enzymes [alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (AST)], electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride) and total protein were assessed. Between-day imprecision (CVs), inaccuracy (Bias) and sigma values were calculated for each control level. Results: Apart from sodium (2.40%, 3.83%), chloride (2.52% and 2.51%) for both L1 and L2 respectively, and glucose (4.82%), cholesterol (4.86%) for L2, CVs for all other parameters (both L1 and L2) were >5%. Four parameters (HDL-C, urea, creatinine and potassium) achieved sigma levels >1 for both controls. Chloride and sodium achieved sigma levels >1 for L1 but <1 for L2. In contrast, cholesterol, total protein and AST achieved sigma levels <1 for L1 but >1 for L2. Glucose and ALP achieved a sigma level >1 for both control levels whereas TG achieved a sigma level >2 for both control levels. Conclusion: Unsatisfactory sigma levels (<3) where achieved for all parameters using both control levels, this shows instability and low consistency of results. There is the need for detailed assessment of the analytical procedures and the strengthening of the laboratory control systems in order to achieve effective six sigma levels for the laboratory.
  8 2,838 141
Knowledge and perception of human papilloma virus vaccine among the antenatal women in a Nigerian tertiary hospital
Teddy E Agida, Godwin O Akaba, Aliyu Y Isah, Bissalla Ekele
January-February 2015, 56(1):23-27
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.149166  PMID:25657489
Background: Cervical cancer is a major health problem globally, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, Nigeria inclusive. One of the preventive measures is the vaccination of teenagers against oncogenic human papilloma virus. The aim of this study was to find out the level of knowledge mothers possess about these vaccines and their willingness to administer vaccination to their teenage girls. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of 255 consecutive women attending antenatal clinic at the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Abuja. They were given either a self-administered questionnaire or interviewer-administered questionnaire containing both closed and open-ended questions. Information recorded includes socio-demographic variables, knowledge of cervical cancer, knowledge of HPV/HPV vaccines and acceptance of these vaccines for their adolescent girls. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 26.9 years. Over 90% had at least secondary education. A total of 102 (40%) had the knowledge of cancer of the cervix while 153 (60%) had never heard about it. Overall, 236 (92.5%) of them had no idea about the predisposing factors. The study showed that only 23 (9.0%) out of the total respondents had heard about human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. In the same vein, 20 (7.8%) had knowledge about HPV vaccine. Among the respondents, who had the knowledge of HPV and vaccination, 18.2% and 23.4% of them had secondary and tertiary levels of education respectively. Overall, 160 (62.8%) accepted that the vaccines could be administered to their teenage girls. Conclusions: Awareness of cervical cancer, HPV infections, and HPV vaccines is low among antenatal clinic attendees in Gwagwalada, Abuja. However, majority of them would want their girls vaccinated against HPV infections. There is a need for all stakeholders to step up awareness creation for improved HPV vaccination project in Nigeria.
  7 6,111 183
Forensic Investigation of mass disasters in Nigeria: A review
John Oladapo Obafunwa, Francis Adedayo Faduyile, Sunday Sokunle Soyemi, Uwom Okereke Eze, Edmund JC Nwana, William Olufemi Odesanmi
January-February 2015, 56(1):1-5
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.149162  PMID:25657485
This paper is to establish the present state of things in the country in terms of legal framework and the availability of personnel with a view to presenting an overview of proper mass disaster investigations. This is a retrospective review of mass disasters in Nigeria that occurred within the last 20 years. The study therefore reviews the state of the forensic investigation of the mass disasters as well as the efforts made to identify the victims of the disaster. The process of proper forensic investigation from the stage of evaluation of the scene and recovery process to the final identification of victims are presented to serve as a protocol for the country. The assessment of the present state of preparedness in Nigeria is also examined with a view to improving the practice to international standards. Data were retrieved from official documents from the aviation industry as well as Nigeria news reports. The standard protocols for disaster victim identification were retrieved from the guide released by the INTERPOL. The state of preparedness of the country and recommendations for improvement are presented. The Federal government and the states of the federation should without further delay put in place the process of reviewing the law of Coroner's system and provide the enabling environment for the proper forensic investigation. The training curriculum of the first responders should incorporate mass disaster investigations in order to produce efficient officers and personnel. A functional disaster victim identification (DVI) team is strongly advocated to incorporate different professionals involved in mass disaster management.
  6 6,098 218
Comparing the results of Pap smear and Direct Visual Inspection (DVI) with 5% acetic acid in cervical cancer screening
Shakiba Pourasad-Shahrak, Hanieh Salehi-Pourmehr, Parvin Mostafa-Garebaghi, Mohammad Asghari-Jafarabadi, Jamileh Malakouti, Monireh Haghsay
January-February 2015, 56(1):35-38
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.149168  PMID:25657491
Background: Cervical cancer is the most second common cancer among Iranian women. This study was carried out to compare the results of Pap smear method and Direct Visual Inspection (DVI) with 5% acetic acid in cervical cancer screening in Tabriz, Iran. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in Alzahra Therapeutic-Educational Centre, Tabriz, Iran in 2013 on 1000 women. First, Pap smear was done for all women, and then the cervix exposed with 5% acetic acid by cotton swab for 30 seconds and observed under adequate light. At the end, women with abnormal results in Pap smear or DVI method were referred to colposcopy and biopsy. Test's sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV), LR+, LR- and confidence interval (CI) were determined (P < 0.05). Results: Nine-hundred and seventy-four (94.7%) cases were normal and had no abnormal findings and 26 (2.6%) participants had positive results in Pap smear or DVI test. Twelve women had abnormal Pap smear (nine women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, ASCUS, three women with dysplasia, atypical endocervical, and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, LSIL results) and 14 women had positive DVI (four women with human papillomavirus, HPV or koilocyte,) and one women with abnormality in both method had carcinoma in biopsy that referred to oncologist. In this study the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for DVI were 71.4%, 50%, 35.7%, and 81.8% respectively in comparison with 14.3%, 50%, 10%, and 60% for Pap smear. Conclusion: As the DVI method has higher sensitivity and positive predictive value than Pap smear, it could be used as a useful method beside the Pap smear.
  4 2,171 143
Bee sting envenomation resulting in gross haematuria in an eight-year-old Nigerian male with sickle cell anaemia: A case report
Kelechi Kenneth Odinaka, Kingsley Achigbu, Ifeanyi Ike, Francis Iregbu
January-February 2015, 56(1):69-70
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.149175  PMID:25657498
Gross haematuria is an unusual complication of Honey bee stings. Herein, we report a rare case of gross haematuria following multiple honeybees stings in an 8-year-old Nigerian child with sickle cell anaemia. The patient had evidence of massive intravascular haemolysis and was transfused with a unit of fresh whole blood. However, he died within 36 hours on admission despite medical intervention.
  2 1,822 77
Surgical management of recalcitrant peripheral bronchopleural fistula with empyema: A preliminary experience
Kelechi E Okonta, Emmanuel O Ocheli, Tombari J Gbeneol
January-February 2015, 56(1):12-16
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.149164  PMID:25657487
Background: Peripheral bronchopleural fistula (BPF) and empyema from necrotising infections of the lung and pleural is difficult to treat resulting in increased morbidity and mortality rates. The aim of this study was to show the effectiveness of the Latissimus Dorsi muscle (LDM) flap and patch closure techniques in the management of recalcitrant peripheral BPFs with the aid of thoracotomy. Materials and Methods: Five patients with BPF and empyema out of 26 patients who were initially treated for empyema thoracis by single or multiple chest tube insertions and/or ultrasound-guided drainage were prospectively identified and followed up for 2 years, postoperatively. The postoperative hospital stay, dyspnoea score, function of the ipsilateral upper limb and any deformity of chest wall were assessed at follow-up visits by asking relevant questions. Results: The mean age was 46.8 years (23-69 years) (4 males and 1 female). The cause of the BPF in 18 patients was Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 8 was pneumonia. The mean total months of the chest tube insertions was 1.5 months (range 2.5-6 months) prior to the thoracotomy and closure of fistula procedures performed on the 5 patients (with LDM flap in 4 patients and pleural patch in 1 patient). The complications recorded were: subcutaneous emphysema, residual pus and haemothorax in three patients. The mean postoperative hospital stay was 20.8 days (13-28 days);There was improved dyspnoea score to 1 or 2 in the 5 (19.2%) patients. There was no recurrence of BPF or residual pus in all the patients; no loss of function or deformity of the chest wall. Conclusion: The use of LDM Flap was effective in treating peripheral BFP without any adverse long-term outcome.
  2 2,375 116
Cervical cancer screening in women referred to healthcare centres in Tabriz, Iran
Azizeh Farshbaf-Khalili, Hanieh Salehi-Pourmehr, Mahnaz Shahnazi, Sina Yaghoubi, Parvaneh Gahremani-Nasab
January-February 2015, 56(1):28-34
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.149167  PMID:25657490
Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among Iranian women and among the few cancers that could be easily diagnosed in the pre-malignant stage. We aimed to assess the status of cervical cancer screening in women referred to health care centres in Tabriz, northwest Iran. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was done on 441 women referred to health care centres of Tabriz, northwest Iran. The centres were selected using the multi-stage cluster sampling method. The participants were selected from the active records of those centres. A questionnaire regarding the socio-demographic characteristics and cervical cancer screening and reasons for referring or not referring for screening was completed by the participants A P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Out of the participants 49.4% of women had done the Pap smear test while 50.6% had never done this test. The main reason why women had not performed cervical cancer screening was being unaware of the importance of it (46.1%). Logistic regression analysis with adjustment showed a significant relationship between screening and awareness scores (OR = 1.17, CI = 95%:1.12-1.23), when the effect of other confounding factors [total awareness scores, risk factors (marriage or having sexual intercourse at a young age, history of obvious cervical infection, cautery, cryotherapy or repeated curettage), age and type of family planning] in screening was controlled. Conclusion: Suitable and continuous educational programmes especially for high risk women should be implemented through the health care services. Preparing educational brochures and pamphlets and providing adequate training on the necessity of early referral and marriage counseling could also be effective in improving woman's awareness and performance.
  2 2,046 116
Factors associated with antiretroviral treatment interruption in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected children attending the Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria
Augustine O Ebonyi, Emeka U Ejeliogu, Sylvanus E Okpe, David D Shwe, Esther S Yiltok, Martha O Ochoga, Stephen Oguche
January-February 2015, 56(1):43-47
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.149170  PMID:25657493
Background: Interrupting anti-retroviral therapy (ART) for any number of reasons is an indication of a compromised adherence to ART. Several factors, including the pill burden from other drugs used in treating co-infections in children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), may influence ART adherence. The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with ART interruption in HIV-1-infected children. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study analysing data on 580 children consecutively enrolled on ART between February 2006 and December 2010 at the paediatric HIV clinic of Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH), Jos. Subjects were children aged 2 months - 15 years diagnosed with HIV-1 infection and on first-line ART. Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis was usually commenced at diagnosis while awaiting ART commencement. Children diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB) were also placed on multiple individual anti-TB drugs. Statistical analysis used: A comparison of the data on children with and without ART interruption was made. Variables associated with ART interruption in a univariate analysis were fit in a multivariate logistic model to determine the factors that were associated with ART interruption. Results: Children on anti-TB drugs were twice more likely to interrupt ART compared to those who were not, (adjusted odds ratio, AOR = 1.84 (1.03-3.28); P = 0.04). But children on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis had a 57% reduction in the odds of interrupting ART compared to those who were not, (AOR = 0.43 (0.20-0.93); P = 0.03). Conclusion: Children on ART and also taking multiple individual anti-TB drugs should be monitored closely for ART adherence. Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis should be encouraged in children diagnosed with HIV while awaiting ART commencement as this may prime them for a better ART adherence.
  2 2,447 104
Maxillary tumour as first sign of endocrine abnormality: A report of a rare case
Prasanth Thankappan, Naga Sirisha Chundru, Rajesh Amudala, Anitha Kuppusamy
January-February 2015, 56(1):77-79
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.149178  PMID:25657501
Brown tumour is a non-neoplastic giant cell lesion resulting as a complication of hyperparathyroidism (HPT). HPT usually results from increased secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH). We present a rare case of brown tumour of anterior maxilla presenting as a first sign of previously undiagnosed secondary HPT, to emphasise that giant cell lesions of jaw bones should routinely be screened for PTH levels to rule out underlying endocrine abnormalities and oral manifestation is the earliest manifestation of many systemic diseases and careful evaluation of oral cavity by physician gives information to underlying systemic pathology.
  1 2,027 67
Surgical management of acromegaly in a resource-challenged environment
Idowu Olufemi Emmanuel, Audu Safina Mary-anne
January-February 2015, 56(1):80-82
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.149181  PMID:25657502
The management of acromegaly caused by an uncommon growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma can be challenging in low-resource African subregion. We conducted a study over a 2-year period to describe the results and challenges following surgical treatment of this rare condition in our centre. The clinical outcome was defined as successful based on the surgeon's intraoperative observation, postoperative neuroimaging findings and neuroendocrinological results. A total of three patients (two males and one female) aged 19-32 years were included. Visual impairment was the main presenting symptom in all the three patients. The postoperative period was uneventful. Acromegaly is an uncommon disorder in our region. Surgery is the treatment of choice in low-resource practice.
  1 1,991 82
Early result of hemiarthroplasty in elderly patients with fracture neck of femur
Mue Daniel, Salihu Mohammed, Awonusi Francis, Yongu William, Kortor Joseph, Elachi Cornilius
January-February 2015, 56(1):64-68
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.149174  PMID:25657497
Background: Fractured neck of femur is a frequent and severe injury in elderly patients with consequent high morbidity and mortality. Hemiarthroplasty is an established treatment modality for displaced intracapsular femoral neck fractures in elderly patients above 60 years. This study analysed the early functional outcome and complications of Austin Moore endoprosthesis in elderly patients above 60 years with fractured neck of femur. Materials and Methods: Retrospective data were obtained over a 5 year period from January 2007 to December 2012. Thirty-five elderly patients of 60 years and above with displaced intracapsular fracture neck of femur treated with hemiarthroplasty using Austin Moore endoprosthesis were included. Data were analysed using SPSS version 21. Results: A total of 35 patients were involved. The age-range was 60-90 years with mean age of 69.7 ΁ 7 years. The predominant mechanism of injury was trivial falls in 18 (66.7%) patients. The commonest complication was pressure sore in 2 (5.7%) patients, followed by surgical site infection in 1 (2.9%) patient and periprosthetic fracture in 1 (2.9%) patients. Early post-operative mortality was 2.9%. Post-operative hip functional status according to Postel and Merle d Aubigne revealed that majority (66.6%) of patients had satisfactory hip function. Conclusion: Functional outcome of Austin Moore in elderly patients above 60 years with fracture neck of femur was satisfactory in most of the cases with minimal morbidity. Careful patient selection for hemiarthroplasty is vital and may decrease the incidence of complications and ameliorate the outcomes in the treatment of intracapsular femoral neck fractures.
  1 3,149 161
Clinical and radiographic evaluation of biodegradable bone plates in the treatment of mandibular body fractures
Sherin Kamal Elhalawany, Bassel Tarakji, SN Azzeghaiby, Ibrahim Alzoghaibi, Kusai Baroudi, Mohammad Zakaria Nassani
January-February 2015, 56(1):48-53
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.149171  PMID:25657494
Background: Many different systems are available for the treatment of fractures ranging from the heavy compression plates for mandibular reconstruction to low profile plates for mid-facial fixation, and are made either from stainless steel, titanium or vitallium. Recently, biodegradable, self-reinforced polylactide plates and screws have been used for the internal fixation of fractures of the mandible with good results. Aim of this study: This study evaluated clinically the biodegradable bone plates for treatment of mandibular body fracture and to evaluate bone healing during the follow-up period using digital radiography. Materials and Methods : Eight patients had been suffered from mandibular body fractures were treated using Inion CPS TM bioresorbable fixation system and the healing process were followed up using digitised panoramic radiography at first week and after 1, 3 and 6 months. Results: Clinical examination of fractured segments revealed stable fixation across the fracture sites while visual and quantitative assessment of radiograph showed healing process was comparable with results previously reported by titanium bone plates. Conclusion: Open reduction and internal fixation of mandibular fractures using bioresorbable fixation system with a brief period of inter-maxillary fixation have evolved to the point where the physical properties are sufficient to withstand the post-operative loads required for fracture repair of mandibular body fractures. The foreign body reaction is a major material-related problem which requires further studies.
  1 2,327 165
Freedom from atrial fibrillation after cox maze III ablation during follow-up
Fariborz Akbarzadeh, Rezayat Parvizi, Naser Safaie, Mohammad-Mahdi Karbalaei, Bita Hazhir-Karzar, Babak Bagheri
January-February 2015, 56(1):59-63
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.149173  PMID:25657496
Background: Nearly 60% of patients undergoing mitral valve (MV) operations are affected by atrial fibrillation (AF). Cox Maze III ablation is one of the effective ways for restoring sinus rhythm for patients undergoing open heart surgery. The aim of present study was to evaluate efficacy of Maze III ablation procedure for restoring sinus rhythm among patients who had underwent open heart surgery. Materials and Methods: During present descriptive-analytic prospective study 114 patients with chronic AF had undergone open heart surgery for their valvular or coronary artery diseases in Educational-Medical centres of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (Tabriz, Iran) 2006-2012, were included in the study. For all patients Maze III ablation was done. Patients were evaluated by 12 lead electrocardiography (ECG) and 24 hours ambulatory ECG monitoring after 3-6 years (mean 4.8) of follow-up. Result : Patients' rhythm before Cox Maze III surgery was chronic AF in all patients. All patients were discharged from operating room with sinus rhythm. During intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalization, rhythm of 34 patients changed to AF and 80 patients had sinus rhythm. Sixteen patients had undergone electrical cardioversion for restoring sinus rhythm which was successful in 12 patients. Ninety-two patients had sinus rhythm when discharged from the hospital. After termination of follow-up, freedom from atrial fibrillation was 51%. Patients with AF during follow-up on surface ECG didn't have episodes of sinus rhythm in their ambulatory monitoring. One patient implanted cardiac pacemaker due to persistent sinus bradycardia. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, Cox Maze III ablation procedure is an effective and safe way for restoring sinus rhythm among patients who are candidate for open heart surgery, while no significant complication was seen among patients.
  1 1,719 88
Leiomyoma of the thyroid gland with psammoma bodies
Aminu Zakari Mohammed, Steven Tijjani Edino, Ali Bala Umar
January-February 2015, 56(1):71-73
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.149176  PMID:25657499
We report a rare case of leiomyoma of the thyroid gland associated with psammoma bodies. The patient was a 9-year-old black African boy. Prior to this, only five cases of primary thyroid leiomyoma have been reported. Histologically, thyroid leiomyoma was characterised by bundles of spindle smooth muscle cells with blunt-ended nuclei. Psammoma bodies were widely distributed within the tumour. Immunohistochemistry showed positive immunoreactivity for smooth muscle actin, vimentin and desmin, but was negative for a cytokeratin cocktail. Further reports of similar cases is required to ascertain the clinical significance of this lesion.
  - 2,907 65
Autopsy study of febrile deaths during monsoon at a tertiary care institute in India: Is malaria still a challenge?
Anurag Gupta, Varsha Dhume, Gururaj Venkatesh Puranik, Vikas Kavishwar
January-February 2015, 56(1):6-11
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.149163  PMID:25657486
Background: To utilise an autopsy-based approach to study the febrile deaths and deaths due to malaria during monsoon period of three years at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Mumbai, India. Materials and Methods: All autopsies done at the hospital during monsoon period from 2005 to 2007 when fever was the main presenting symptom were included in the study. Monsoon period was defined from June to September. A study on the duration of hospital stay of malaria deaths was also attempted. Results: There were 202 autopsies of febrile illness during the study period. Malaria resulted in 20.8% of the deaths besides other causes. A majority of deaths had intrapulmonary haemorrhages as the only pathological finding. Incidence of malaria deaths was more during monsoon period than the non-monsoon period. Plasmodium falciparum was the most common species responsible for malaria deaths while cerebral malaria was the most common mode of death. In 27% of the cases, post-mortem examination helped to arrive at the correct final diagnosis. In 88.1% of the cases, malaria deaths occurred within the first 24 hours of admission to the hospital. Conclusion: The study reiterates the fact that malaria remains a preventable but major cause of death in India, predominantly during the monsoon period. The study also emphasises the importance of developing treatment protocols for malaria during such crucial times besides reinforcing the existing preventive measures.
  - 2,395 112
Efficacy of measuring procalcitonin levels in determination of prognosis and early diagnosis of bacterial resistance in sepsis
Ali Arhami Dolatabadi, Elham Memary, Afshin Amini, Majid Shojaee, Ali Abdalvand, Hamid Reza Hatamabadi
January-February 2015, 56(1):17-22
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.149165  PMID:25657488
Background: Rapid and proper diagnosis of sepsis is one of the daily challenges of emergency department (ED) and intensive care units. The general aim of the present study was to determine the efficacy of measuring procalcitonin levels in the early diagnosis of bacterial resistance to antibiotics administered empirically in patients with sepsis. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study consisted of patients with clinical evidence of sepsis or systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), referring to the ED of a third-level hospital in Tehran, Iran in 2012. After collection of basic and clinical data of patients, venous blood samples were taken for routine laboratory tests and determination of procalcitonin serum levels at baseline and 6 and 24 hours after administration of the first dose of an empirical antibiotic. The subjects were divided into two groups of discharged and expired and then comparisons were made using t-test, Chi-squared test and Fisher's test. Specificity and sensitivity of procalcitonin were evaluated along with ROC curve. Results: In the present study, 170 patients with sepsis were included. Evaluation of serum levels of procalcitonin 24 hours after administration of antibiotics exhibited the best sensitivity and specificity for each patient's response to antibiotics. Use of the cutoff point of 6.5 mg/mL for procalcitonin can predict the disease outcome with sensitivity and specificity of 67% and 80%, respectively. Conclusion: It is suggested that procalcitonin be used for the diagnosis of sepsis or SIRS resulting from an infectious disease, for follow-up of treatment and for evaluation of response to treatment.
  - 2,690 225