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   2015| March-April  | Volume 56 | Issue 2  
    Online since March 17, 2015

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of coconut oil in plaque related gingivitis - A preliminary report
Faizal C Peedikayil, Prathima Sreenivasan, Arun Narayanan
March-April 2015, 56(2):143-147
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.153406  PMID:25838632
Background: Oil pulling or oil swishing therapy is a traditional procedure in which the practitioners rinse or swish oil in their mouth. It is supposed to cure oral and systemic diseases but the evidence is minimal. Oil pulling with sesame oil and sunflower oil was found to reduce plaque related gingivitis. Coconut oil is an easily available edible oil. It is unique because it contains predominantly medium chain fatty acids of which 45-50 percent is lauric acid. Lauric acid has proven anti inflammatory and antimicrobial effects. No studies have been done on the benefits of oil pulling using coconut oil to date. So a pilot study was planned to assess the effect of coconut oil pulling on plaque induced gingivitis. Materials and Methods: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of coconut oil pulling/oil swishing on plaque formation and plaque induced gingivitis. A prospective interventional study was carried out. 60 age matched adolescent boys and girls in the age-group of 16-18 years with plaque induced gingivitis were included in the study and oil pulling was included in their oral hygiene routine. The study period was 30 days. Plaque and gingival indices of the subjects were assessed at baseline days 1,7,15 and 30. The data was analyzed using paired t test. Results: A statistically significant decrease in the plaque and gingival indices was noticed from day 7 and the scores continued to decrease during the period of study. Conclusion: Oil pulling using coconut oil could be an effective adjuvant procedure in decreasing plaque formation and plaque induced gingivitis.
  8,797 260 5
Knowledge of heart disease risk factors among workers in a Nigerian University: A call for concern
Adeseye Abiodun Akintunde, Temitope 'Sade Akintunde, Oladimeji George Opadijo
March-April 2015, 56(2):91-95
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.150688  PMID:25838622
Introduction: Cardiovascular disease is the commonest cause of mortality worldwide. Many risk factors predate the development of cardiovascular diseases. Adequate knowledge of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases is the first step towards effective preventive strategies to combat the cardiovascular diseases burden in any population. This study aims to determine the knowledge of workers in a Nigerian University on risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 206 academic and non-academic staff of Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria using the Heart Disease Fact Questionnaire (HDFQ). Demographic data were taken. The lipid profile and random blood sugar were taken. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 17.0. Results: The mean age of the study participants was 45.3 ΁ 7.9 years. There were 96 males (46.6%). The mean HDFQ score was 48.6%. Only 41 (19.9%) of participants were assessed to have good knowledge of heart disease risk factors. Majority, 101 (49.0%) had poor knowledge while 64 (31.2%) had fair knowledge of heart disease risk factors. There was no significant difference between prevalence of CV risk factors between those with good or fair or low level of knowledge. Most participants did not have a good level of knowledge about risk factors, prevention, treatment and association with diabetes as it relates to heart diseases. Conclusion: Knowledge of heart disease risk factors is low among University workers in Nigeria. Effective education on heart disease risk factors and appropriate preventive strategies are indeed important to reduce cardiovascular disease burden in Nigerian University communities.
  5,324 174 5
Profile and retrospective analysis of the use of preventive strategies in patients with cervical cancer in South-South Nigeria
Bassey Goddy, Nyengidiki T Kennedy, Onwubuariri Michael
March-April 2015, 56(2):109-112
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.150693  PMID:25838625
Background: Cervical cancer is the commonest malignancy of the female genital tract in developing countries, with a global burden of 530,000 new cases annually. This study aims to review the current situation of this important malignancy and to assess the previous use of preventive measures in patients with cervical cancer at the Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH), Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective review of all cases of cervical cancer managed at the UPTH, Port Harcourt, Nigeria, between 1 January 2008 and 31 December, 2012. Results: The prevalence of cervical cancer was 3.53% of all gynaecological admissions. The peak age of incidence was 50-59 years, accounting for 40% of the study population. Women with high parity contributed to 93.3% of the study population. Early coitarche was observed in 78.7% and a history of multiple sexual partners in 65.3%. Vaginal bleeding was the commonest clinical feature seen in all the women studied, followed by pelvic pain in 84% of cases. Advanced-stage cervical cancer was seen in 93.4%. None of the women studied had been previously vaccinated against human papilloma virus (HPV), and only 1.3% had had any form of screening methods for early detection of cervical cancer. Conclusion: Cervical cancer remains an important cancer in our environment, and late presentation with advance disease is still the norm despite advances in screening and preventive modalities. The reason for this is buttressed on the finding that despite the availability of these preventive strategies, women in the South-South of Nigeria did not partake of these measures. There is an urgent need to develop programmes to re-sensitise women on the need for screening and vaccination to reduce cancer-associated morbidity and mortality in Port Harcourt, South-South Nigeria.
  4,575 110 1
Prevalence and predictors for domestic violence among pregnant women in a rural community Northwest, Nigeria
Adewale O Ashimi, Taiwo G Amole
March-April 2015, 56(2):118-121
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.150696  PMID:25838627
Objective: Domestic violence (DV) against women constitutes a violation of human rights. This study aimed at determining the prevalence and predictors for DV among pregnant women in a rural community northwest Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study which utilised an interviewer-administered semi-structured pretested questionnaire. This assessed the type of DV experienced, the perpetrators and the trigger factor. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relative effect of determinants, adjusting for other predictor variables. The dependent variable was the occurrence of DV classified as "Yes" or "No" and the covariates included variables that were significantly associated with DV. Results: Of the 314 respondents, 108 (34.3%) had experienced at least one form of DV and the types observed are: Verbal violence 79(68.5%); psychological violence72 (66.7%) and physical violence 55(50.9%). The perpetrators were the current husband in 40 (37.0%); co-wives in 33 (30.6%) and in-laws in 25 (23.1%). Of the cases, domestic issues were the trigger factor in 69 (63.9%) of cases and 54 (50%) of, the incidence was never reported. Ethnicity and type of marriage were significantly associated with occurrence of DV ( P ≤ 0.05) and both remained predictors for DV after controlling for confounders [Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.20 and 95% C.I = 1.42-11.9; AOR = 4.2 and 95% C.I = 1.36-3.57, respectively]. Conclusion: The prevalence of DV in pregnancy is high with women of Hausa/Fulani ethnicity and those in polygamous relationships at a higher risk. Effort should be made to screen pregnant women for DV during antenatal care.
  4,501 94 3
Knowledge and attitudes towards obesity among primary school children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Marina A Njelekela, Alfa Muhihi, Rose N. M. Mpembeni, Amani Anaeli, Omary Chillo, Sulende Kubhoja, Benjamin Lujani, Davis Ngarashi, Mwanamkuu Maghembe
March-April 2015, 56(2):103-108
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.150692  PMID:25838624
Background: Childhood obesity has increased over the past two decades. Child obesity is likely to persist through adulthood and increases the risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) later in life. This study assessed knowledge and attitudes towards obesity among primary school children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in randomly selected primary schools in Dar es Salaam. A structured questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge and attitudes. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were taken using standard procedures. Results: A total of 446 children were included in the analysis. The mean age of the participants was 11.1 ± 2.0 years. The mean body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were 16.6 ± 4.0 kg/m 2 , 103.9 ± 10.3 mmHg and 65.6 ± 8.2 mmHg, respectively. Prevalence of obesity (defined as BMI >95 th percentile for age and sex) was 5.2%. Half of the children (51.1%) had heard about obesity from teachers at school (20%), radio (19.4%) and books/newspaper (17.3%). Less than half (45.4%) had knowledge about the risk factors for childhood obesity and correctly defined obesity (44.6%). However, a good number of the children (72.1%) were aware that they can be affected by obesity. Majority of them had negative attitude towards obesity and various factors leading to or resulting from childhood obesity. Conclusions: Knowledge about childhood obesity among primary school children is moderate and have negative attitude towards obesity. Integrating educational programs early in primary schools may be an effective strategy to impact knowledge about obesity and other non-communicable diseases early in childhood.
  4,378 149 2
Maternal perspectives on gestational weight gain: Critical information on developing weight control interventions
Biodun N Olagbuji, Babatunde A Olofinbiyi, Akinyemi A Akintayo, Olusola P Aduloju, Pius I Ade-Ojo
March-April 2015, 56(2):96-102
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.150689  PMID:25838623
Background: Our aim was to demonstrate what women reported being counselled about weight gain in pregnancy, their perceptions of inappropriate gestational weight gain (GWG), and plans for weight gain in pregnancy. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of perceptions of prenatal attendees about inappropriate GWG was conducted at the prenatal clinic of a referral tertiary health facility in south western, Nigeria, between January 1, 2013 and June 30, 2013. Primary outcomes were the perceptions of women about risks involved with inappropriate weight gain and the proportion of women who self-reported being counselled at all on GWG, and had the right knowledge of risk(s) involved with inappropriate weight gain during pregnancy. Results: Of the 348 women who completed the survey, approximately four-fifths (82.8%) reported GWG being discussed at all by health care provider. Fewer women (29.3%) believed there were maternal risks with excess weight gain compared to inadequate weight gain (34.8%). With respect to perception of risks of inappropriate weight gain to infants, 23.65 and 18.4%, respectively, believed there were infant risks with excess and inadequate GWG. Overweight women [OR 0.39 (95% CI 0.16-0.98)] and those who received GWG information from more than one type of health care provider [OR 4.71 (95% CI 1.64-13.78)] had significant increased rate of correct knowledge of risks involved with inappropriate GWG. Conclusion: The lack of awareness of risks involved with inappropriate GWG by over half of respondents underscores the need for improvement in educational intervention on GWG in our environment.
  4,315 143 3
Uncomplicated malaria in children: The place of rapid diagnostic test
Hassan Abdullahi Elechi, Adamu Ibrahim Rabasa, Muhammad Faruk Bashir, Mustapha Modu Gofama, Halima Abubakar Ibrahim, Umoru Muhammed Askira
March-April 2015, 56(2):85-90
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.150686  PMID:25838621
Background : Malaria has remained a major cause of morbidity and mortality among the under-five children in Nigeria. Prompt and accurate diagnosis of malaria is necessary in controlling this high burden and preventing unnecessary use of anti-malarial drugs. Malaria rapid diagnostic test (MRDT) offers the hope of achieving this goal. However, the performance of these kits among the most vulnerable age group to malaria is inadequate . Materials and Methods : In this cross-sectional study, 433 out-patients, aged <5 years with fever or history of fever were enrolled. Each candidate was tested for malaria parasitaemia using ACON; malaria pf. Thick and thin films were also prepared from the same finger prick blood for each candidate . Result: Malaria rapid diagnostic test had sensitivity of 8.3%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 100% and negative predictive value (NPV) of 74%. The sensitivity of MRDT increased with increasing age. This effect of age on sensitivity was statistically significant (P = 0.007). Similarly parasite density had significant effect on the sensitivity of MRDT (P = <0.001). Conclusion : Histidine-rich protein-2 based MRDT is not a reliable mean of diagnosing malaria in the under-five age children with acute uncomplicated malaria.
  4,187 217 2
Clinicopathological features of gastric carcinoma in Ibadan, Nigeria, 2000-2011
Henry Okuchukwu Ebili, Abideen Olayiwola Oluwasola, Effiong EU Akang, John Olufemi Ogunbiyi
March-April 2015, 56(2):126-131
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.150700  PMID:25838629
Aim: The most recent study on the clinicopathological features of gastric carcinoma from the University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan, was done in 2000. The aim of this study is to update the knowledge on the clinicopathological features of gastric carcinoma diagnosed in the Pathology Department of the UCH Ibadan between 2000 and 2011. Materials and Methods: This was a 12-year retrospective review of clinical and demographic data and the histopathological features of gastric cancers diagnosed at the Pathology Department of the UCH. The chi square test, Fisher's exact test, and the t-independent test were used as applicable in the statistical analyses. Results: A total of 117 cases of gastric carcinoma were histologically diagnosed at the Pathology Department of UCH, Ibadan in this period giving a relative ratio frequency of 1.38% for all cancers. It represented 18.4% of all gastrointestinal tract malignancies diagnosed in the same period. There was a male preponderance with male:female ratio of 1.72:1; the middle-aged and elderly made up about 76.1% of cases. The disease was clinically and histologically advanced in 92.8% of cases. Gastric tumours were predominantly antral/ pyloric in 80% of cases and exophytic in 62.3% of cases. The intestinal histotype constituted 47.0% cases although a rise in the diffuse histological type was observed. Conclusion: There is a decline in the relative ratio frequency of gastric carcinoma in Ibadan; and a fall in the rate of the intestinal type of gastric carcinoma relative to the diffuse type when compared to previous studies from our centre.
  4,074 65 -
Cardio-pulmonary resuscitation in the intensive care unit: An experience from a tertiary hospital in Sub-Saharan Africa
Kingsley Ufuoma Tobi, Frederick Ebegue Amadasun
March-April 2015, 56(2):132-137
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.150694  PMID:25838630
Background: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is one the most commonly performed procedures in the intensive care unit (ICU). However, success rate of CPR vary widely from 3.1% to 16.5%. Patients and Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of all cardiac arrests prompting CPR in our ICU for a period of 12 months. Data retrieved from ICU records included patients demographic characteristics, diagnosis at admission, length of ICU stay, time and day of cardiac arrest, cardiac rhythm, duration of CPR and outcome of CPR. Results: A total of 156 CPRs were performed within the study period with 8.3% success rate. Male: female ratio was 1.2:1. Indications for ICU admission, length of stay in ICU, time and day of cardiac and duration of CPR were found to be determinants of outcome. Conclusions: There is an urgent need to constitute a cardiac arrest team (CAT) which will be available at all times for improved successful outcome after cardiac arrest in our ICU.
  3,679 56 2
Malnutrition in acutely ill children at the paediatric emergency unit in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria
Isaac E Ocheke, Puoane Thandi
March-April 2015, 56(2):113-117
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.150695  PMID:25838626
Background: In many developing countries, malnutrition remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality particularly in under-five children. The factors responsible for malnutrition could be immediate, underlying or basic, acting either alone or together. It has been shown that children who are malnourished have poorer outcomes from other illnesses than well-nourished children. It is important therefore to periodically describe the extent and pattern of childhood malnutrition so that effective preventive measures can be put in place. Objective: To describe the prevalence and pattern of malnutrition in children presenting with acute illnesses at the Jos University Teaching Hospital. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study in children aged 6 to 59 months seen at the paediatric emergency unit from April to October 2012. The subjects were recruited consecutively. Each child had both clinical assessment and appropriate laboratory evaluations done alongside anthropometric measurements. The nutritional/dietary and socio-demographic histories were also obtained. Results: Of the 379 children, 224 (59.1%) were males and 155 (40.9%) females. The median age was 17 months, range (6-57). Wasting (WFH z-scores ≤−3 to <−1SD) was evident in one hundred children, giving an overall prevalence of 26.9%. Severe wasting (WFH z-score <−3), was present in 22 (5.9%) children indicating the prevalence of marasmus, whereas only two children (0.53%) had oedematous malnutrition (kwashiorkor). Stunting or chronic malnutrition, (HFA z-scores ≤−3 to <−1SD) was present in 67 children (18.0%). Seventeen (4.6%) were severely stunted (HFA z-score <−3). Conclusions: Wasting was the most common form of malnutrition in the study.
  3,647 79 -
Knowledge regarding Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever among private dental practitioners in Tricity, India: A cross-sectional questionnaire study
Nidhi Gupta, Nishant Mehta, Preety Gupta, Vikram Arora, Priyanka Setia
March-April 2015, 56(2):138-142
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.153405  PMID:25838631
Background: Ebola viral fever, a highly contagious haemorrhagic disease has today become a major public health concern in the developing countries worldwide. Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess knowledge among dental practitioners regarding Ebola Haemorrhagic Fever (Ebola HF) in Tricity, (Chandigarh, Panchkula and Mohali). Materials and Methods : A total of 500 private dental practitioners were randomly approached to participate in this cross-sectional survey. A self-structured, closed ended questionnaire was administered to each participant to record demographic and professional characteristics followed by their knowledge regarding Ebola HF. Knowledge section included questions related to communicability; symptomatology and diagnostics; at-risk individuals; prevention and treatment; and, virus characteristics of Ebola HF. Results: The results were expressed in percentages. Multivariable linear regression analysis was carried out to assess the association of participants's demographic and professional characteristics with the knowledge scores. Statistically significant difference was seen when mean knowledge scores were compared based on the locality and qualification of the participants (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Dental practitioners from urban areas with higher qualification had better knowledge yet there were notable deficiencies regarding the virus characteristics, diagnostics, elimination and treatment.
  3,064 117 3
CASE REPORTS
Desmoplastic fibroma of the ulna bone
Samuel U Eyesan, Tolulope G Kehinde, Adesope S Adesina, Christopher S Ayeni, Biade F Abdulkareem
March-April 2015, 56(2):153-155
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.153408  PMID:25838634
A fibroma is a benign tumour composed of fibrous connective tissue and they can grow in all organs. They can be classified based on consistency into hard or soft fibroma, based on histological characteristics into desmoplastic, chondromyxoid, ossifying, non-ossifying fibroma. They can also be classified based on tissue of origin or location in the body, it can also be classified into superficial or deep fibroma. This is a report of a 15-year-old Nigerian boy with a recurrent left ulnar tumour which was rapidly growing and has been excised three times. Preoperative investigations, i.e., plain radiograph, full blood count and fine needle aspiration cytology were done. Patient could not afford CT scan which was requested for. First excision was in 2009. Recurred within 1 year and had a repeat excision in 2011. He had a second recurrence 9 months after and had to have another excision. The last tumour excision left only the part of the left ulna that forms the proximal radioulnar joint and elbow joint. Patient has been followed up after the last excision for 18 months with no recurrence.
  3,064 68 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Screening for diabetes mellitus in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in tertiary care hospital in India
Vinay Mahishale, Arati Mahishale, Bhagyashri Patil, Avuthu Sindhuri, Ajith Eti
March-April 2015, 56(2):122-125
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.150699  PMID:25838628
Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are common and under diagnosed medical conditions in India. Prevalence of these chronic diseases are high both in rural and urban areas. However, exact prevalence of DM in Indian COPD patients in unclear. Co-morbid conditions like DM have great impact on the outcome of COPD in the form of severity, exacerbations, morbidity and mortality. Hence the present study objective was to screen COPD patients for DM. Results: A total of 1662 patients with COPD (Males = 1264, Female = 398) with mean age 58 ΁ 9.6 were screened for DM. Patients with known history of DM were 353 (21.24%) and were enrolled as "Known DM" cases. Remaining 1309 (78.76%) patients whose DM status was unclear were screened by random blood sugar (RBS). One-hundred and seventy-one subjects had RBS > 110 mg/dl. About 73 (4.39%) subjects had fasting blood sugar (FBS) > 126 mg/dl. They were considered as "Newly Diagnosed DM" cases. Total number of DM cases in the study including new and known was 426 (25.63%). Number of patients with deranged FBS (FBS between 110 mg/dl to126 mg/dl) was 84 (5.05%). Among the DM patients with COPD 168 (10.11%) had poor glycemic control with HbA1c > 8. Prevalence of DM in present study was 25.63%. Conclusion: Prevalence of DM in COPD patients in the present study is 25.63% when actively screened in tertiary care hospital. It is feasible and imperative to screen all COPD patients for DM in all health care facilities routinely.
  2,742 117 2
Basic life support knowledge and skills of Iranian general dental practitioners to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation
Mohammad Reza Jamalpour, Hossein Kimiaei Asadi, Khosrow Zarei
March-April 2015, 56(2):148-152
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.153407  PMID:25838633
Background: When cardiopulmonary arrest occurs, the dentist's ability to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is the most important factor to minimize morbidity and mortality. This study assessed the basic life support (BLS) knowledge and performance of general dental practitioners in Hamadan, Iran. Materials and Methods: The participants in the study were 80 Iranian general dental practitioners who were chosen randomly. Their CPR knowledge was evaluated by verbal questions and their CPR skills were determined by CPR execution on a special manikin. Nearly 39% (n = 31) of dentists answered none of the questions and only 2.50% (n = 2) answered all of the questions correctly. Thirty six dentists had been participated CPR course after graduation. Result: There was a significant difference between dentists who participated in CPR training course and those that did not participate (P value = 0.000). Only 3.75% (n = 3) were able to perform CPR properly. Conclusion: The results showed that the amount of CPR knowledge and skills were low in participated Iranian general dental practitioners. However, CPR training courses after graduation increased the amount of knowledge significantly, thus, retraining CPR courses is necessary for dentists.
  2,536 63 2
CASE REPORTS
Report of nine cases of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever From Iran
Jamshid Ayatollahi, Seyed Hossein Shahcheraghi, Mahmood Mirjalili
March-April 2015, 56(2):156-159
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.153409  PMID:25838635
Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an often fatal viral infection described in about 30 countries around the world. It is transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected tick and by direct contact with blood or tissue from infected humans and livestock. In the following, we report nine cases of CCHF disease. This paper reported nine human CCHF cases, two in Tabas and Bandar Abbas and seven in Yazd. They were 21-, 33-, 28-, 29-, 61, 34, 35, 36 and 52 year-old men. The first, second and third patients were butchers and other patients were farmers. CCHF should be investigated in the patients with fever, bleeding and low platelet counts.
  2,333 67 2
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