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   2016| January-February  | Volume 57 | Issue 1  
    Online since April 15, 2016

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Psychosocial needs of families of intensive care patients: Perceptions of nurses and families
Seyed Afshin Shorofi, Yadollah Jannati, Hossein Roohi Moghaddam, Jamshid Yazdani-Charati
January-February 2016, 57(1):10-18
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.180557  PMID:27185973
Background: Admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) is not only stressful to the patients but the patients' family members. Families are believed not to receive their required attention because their needs are incorrectly and inaccurately evaluated by the health care team. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the perceptions of ICU nurses and families regarding the psychosocial needs of families of intensive care patients. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was conducted on a randomly selected population of 80 nurses and 80 family members of ICU patients. Data were collected using a two-part questionnaire containing sociodemographic characteristics and the Critical Care Family Need Inventory (CCFNI). Results: The rank order of the five most important CCFNI item needs identified by families were as follows: “To feel that the hospital personnel care about the patient”, “to be assured that the best care possible is being given to the patient”, “to have questions answered honestly”, “to know specific facts concerning patient's progress”, and “to be called at home about changes in the patient's condition.” The top five CCFNI item needs identified by nurses were in the following order: “To be assured that the best care possible is being given to the patient”, “to be told about transfer plans while they are being made”, “to feel that the hospital personnel care about the patient”, “to have questions answered honestly”, and “to know specific facts concerning patient's progress.” Conclusion: The present study showed there are similarities and dissimilarities between nurses and family members in their perceived importance of some family needs in the ICU. It can thus be inferred from our results that the participating nurses misestimated the needs of family members, attested by their wrong estimation of the most need statements.
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The predictors of psychiatric disorders among people living with epilepsy as seen in a Nigerian Tertiary Health Institution
Kazeem Ayinde Ayanda, Dauda Sulyman
January-February 2016, 57(1):24-30
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.180559  PMID:27185975
Background: Mental disorders may complicate epilepsy which can further impair the quality of life of people living with this chronic neurological condition. The aim of this study was to determine the types of psychiatric disorders in patients with epilepsy and to determine the sociodemographic and clinical factors that may predict these psychiatric illnesses. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out over a period of 6 months at Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Teaching Hospital, Bauchi, Nigeria. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used to determine the psychological health of 74 consecutively recruited adult patients with epilepsy attending the psychiatric outpatients' clinic of the hospital. Psychiatric diagnoses were based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, 4th Edition criteria, and logistic regression analysis was done to determine variables that predict psychiatric disorder. Results: Majority of the participants were male (67.6%) with their age ranging from 18 to 68 years and the mean age of 30.55 ± 10.91 years. Thirty-three (44.6%) of our study respondents had psychiatric diagnoses that included major depressive disorder (21.6%), schizophrenia (17.6%), generalized anxiety disorder (4.1%), and hypomania (1.4%). Being unemployed (odds ratio [OR] = 3.24. 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15–9.10, P = 0.026) and short-term seizure free period (OR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.04–0.78, P = 0.022) were the variables found to be predictive of psychiatric diagnoses. Conclusions: The study revealed that a large percentage of people living with epilepsy develop mental disorders which can further increase the burden and worsen the quality of life of patients with this chronic debilitating condition.
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Assessment of maternal risk factors associated with low birth weight neonates at a tertiary hospital, Nanded, Maharashtra
Vijay Kishanrao Domple, Mohan K Doibale, Abhilasha Nair, Pinkesh S Rajput
January-February 2016, 57(1):37-43
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.180564  PMID:27185977
Background: To assess the maternal risk factors associated with low birth weight (LBW) neonates at a tertiary hospital, Nanded, Maharashtra. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital in Nanded city of Maharashtra between January 2014 and July 2014 among 160 cases (LBW-birth weight ≤2499 g) and 160 controls (normal birth weight-birth weight >2499. Data collection was done by using predesigned questionnaire and also related health documents were checked and collected the expected information during the interview after obtaining informed consent from mothers. The data were analyzed by Epi Info 7 Version. Results: The present study found the significant association among gestational age, sex of baby, type of delivery, maternal age, religion, education of mother and husband, occupation of mother and husband, type of family, maternal height, weight gain, hemoglobin level, planned/unplanned delivery, bad obstetric history, interval between pregnancies, previous history of LBW, underlying disease, tobacco chewing, timing of first antenatal care (ANC) visit, total number of ANC visit, and iron and folic acid (IFA) tablets consumption with LBW. No significant association was found among maternal age, residence, caste, consanguinity of marriage, socioeconomic status, gravida, birth order, multiple pregnancy, and smoking with LBW in our study. Conclusion: It was concluded that hemoglobin level, weight gain during pregnancy, gestational age, planned/unplanned delivery, bad obstetric history, and IFA tablets consumption during pregnancy were independent risk factors for LBW.
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Ascorbic acid treatment elevates follicle stimulating hormone and testosterone plasma levels and enhances sperm quality in albino Wistar rats
Uduak Akpan Okon, Ikponoabasi Ibanga Utuk
January-February 2016, 57(1):31-36
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.180570  PMID:27185976
Background: Infertility issues have been linked to the effect of oxidative reaction in the reproductive system. This study evaluated the effect of ascorbic acid, on fertility parameters of male albino Wistar rats was studied. Materials and Methods: Eighteen albino Wistar rats weighed between 178 g and 241 g were used, randomly assigned into three groups. Group 1 was the control group; oral gavaged 5 ml of distilled water; Groups 2 and 3 were administered medium dose (250 mg/kg) and high dose of ascorbic acid (400 mg/kg), respectively; twice daily for 21 days. Blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture, and blood serum was obtained for hormonal assay, and the testes were harvested for sperm analysis. Results: Follicle stimulating hormone levels significantly increased in the high-dose group as compared to both the control and medium dose groups. Luteinizing hormone levels in the medium dose group decreased significantly as compared to the control group. Testosterone significantly increased in both the medium- and high-dose groups as compared to the control group. Sperm motility increased significantly in the high-dose group as compared to both control and medium-dose groups. Percentage sperm concentration decreased significantly in the medium-dose group when compared to the control and increased significantly in the high-dose group as compared to the medium-dose group. For percentage normal morphology, there was a dose-dependent increase in the test groups when compared to control group. Conclusion: These results are indicative of a positive influence of ascorbic acid on male fertility modulators and may therefore, serve as a potential adjuvant treatment for male infertility cases.
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Plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines in adult Nigerians with the metabolic syndrome
Udenze Ifeoma Christiana, Amadi E Casimir, Awolola Awodele Nicholas, Makwe C Christian, Ajie I Obiefuna
January-February 2016, 57(1):64-68
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.180569  PMID:27185982
Background: The aim of this study is to determine the plasma levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrotic factor alpha (TNF-α, and C-reactive protein (CRP) in adult Nigerians with the metabolic syndrome and to determine the relationship between components of the metabolic syndrome and CRP in adult Nigerians. Subjects and Methods: This was a case–control study of fifty adult men and women with the metabolic syndrome, and fifty age- and sex-matched males and females without the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Programme-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Written informed consent was obtained from the participants. Blood pressure and anthropometry measurements were taken and venous blood was collected after an overnight fast. The Ethics Committee of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria, approved the study protocol. Comparisons of continuous variables and categorical variables were done using the Student's t-test and Chi-square test, respectively. Regression analysis was used to determine the associations between variables. Statistical significance was set at P< 0.05. Results: The age- and sex-matched males and females with and without the metabolic syndrome did not differ in their sociodemographic characteristics. They however differed in some clinical and laboratory parameters such as diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.048), waist circumference (P = 0.002), body mass index (P = 0.012), waist/hip ratio (P = 0.023), high density lipoprotein (HDL) (P = 0.012), and insulin resistance (IR) (P = 0.042). There was a statistically significant increase in the inflammatory marker, CRP (P = 0.019), the cytokines, IL6 (P = 0.040), and TNF-α (P = 0.031) between the subjects with and without metabolic syndrome. There was also a significant association between CRP, waist circumference, IR, and HDL in the metabolic syndrome (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines are raised in metabolic syndrome and this may provide novel strategies for the management of metabolic syndrome and related disorders.
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Effects of adenotonsillar hypertrophy corrective surgery on nocturnal enuresis of children
Shahin Abdollohi-Fakhim, Arefeh Talebi, Mohammad Naghavi-Behzad, Reza Piri, Mohammad Sadra Nazari
January-February 2016, 57(1):69-73
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.180558  PMID:27185983
Background: Nocturnal enuresis is considered a common urological complaint especially among children. Respiratory obstructive diseases have been one of the possible etiologies of such a condition. The most common type of upper respiratory obstructive diseases in childhood is adenotonsillar hypertrophy. In this study, it was tried to estimate the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in adenotonsillar hypertrophy as an upper obstructive airway disease and cure rate after corrective operation. Materials and Methods: In this longitudinal study, 184 children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy as case group and 200 healthy children as control group were randomly compared for nocturnal enuresis incidence and risk factors. Then they were followed after 6 months to estimate the cure rate after corrective operation. Results: In case group, nocturnal enuresis was more common than control group (26% vs. 17%, P = 0.1). Factors which had a role in enuresis in case group were family history (P = 0.03) and male sex (P = 0.05). Three months after surgery, 48% of children totally cured from enuresis (P = 0.001) and 71% cured both partially or totally (P = 0.03). The response rate after moderate obstruction relieving was 100% while that in severe cases was 60% (P = 0.2). Conclusions: Nocturnal enuresis due to upper obstructive airway disease occurs more in male and in the presence of family history. The cure rate after 6 months of operation was more prominent in moderate obstruction which suggests enuresis in severe airway obstruction may need a longer time to subside. Cure rate of primary enuresis due to obstructive airway disease after 6 months of relieving was 48% in children over 5 years old.
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Intraventricular cerebrospinal fluid pulsation artifacts on low-field magnetic resonance imaging: Potential pitfall in diagnosis?
Godwin I Ogbole, Mayowa A Soneye, Chinonye N Okorie, Steffen Sammet
January-February 2016, 57(1):59-63
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.180565  PMID:27185981
Background: Intraventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pulsation artifact can pose a diagnostic problem in fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) appearing as intraventricular hyperintensity. The extent of this challenge among radiologists in Africa using low-field MRI systems is relatively sparsely documented in the literature. The purpose of this study was to identify the presence and frequency of ventricular CSF pulsation artifact (VCSFA) on FLAIR axial brain images with a low-field MR system. Materials and Methods: FLAIR axial images were obtained on a low-field 0.3T unit (6000 ms/108 ms/2 [repetition time/echo time/excitations], inversion time = 1700 ms, field of view = 28 cm, matrix = 195 × 256, and 6 mm contiguous sections). Two experienced radiologists independently rated VCSFA in the lateral, third, and fourth ventricles in 202 consecutive patients (age range 1–100 years) referred for brain MR for various indications. We reviewed the pattern of artifacts, to determine its relationship to age, gender, and third ventricular size. Results: The low-field FLAIR MR brain images of 33 patients (16.3%) showed VCSFA in at least one ventricular cavity. The fourth ventricle was the most common site of VCSFA (n = 10), followed by the third ventricle (n = 8) and the lateral ventricles (n = 7). Eight patients had VCSFA in multiple locations, one of them in all ventricles. A smaller third ventricular size and, to a lesser extent, younger age was significantly associated with VCSFA. CSF Pulsation of VCSFA did not occur across the brain parenchyma in the phase encoding direction. Conclusion: VCSFA may mimic pathology on low-field axial FLAIR brain images and are more common in young patients with smaller ventricular size. Although these artifacts are less frequently observed at lower magnetic field strengths, their recognition on low-field MRI systems is important in avoiding a misdiagnosis.
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Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in a spontaneous pregnancy: A potential for missed-diagnosis
James A Osaikhuwuomwan, Abieyuwa P Osemwenkha
January-February 2016, 57(1):74-76
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.180563  PMID:27185984
Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) with the natural ovulatory cycle is extremely rare. We report a case of severe OHSS associated with a spontaneous normal singleton pregnancy in a 23-year-old woman presenting with severe abdominal pain, vomiting, and dyspnea. Ultrasonography revealed 10 weeks viable intra-uterine single fetus with bilateral multilocular cystic ovarian masses and ascites. She had supportive therapy inclusive of oral bromocriptine with complete resolution of OHSS and an eventual uncomplicated normal vaginal delivery at 39 weeks of pregnancy.
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Quality of life among human immunodeficiency virus-1 infected and human immunodeficiency virus-1/hepatitis C virus co-infected individuals in Iranian patients
Sarah Sabouri, Ali Delavar, Hossain Jabbari
January-February 2016, 57(1):49-53
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.180560  PMID:27185979
Background: The aim of this study was to compare the quality of life (QOL) of people infected with both hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The study design was a cross sectional descriptive survey, using self administered questionnaires. Materials and Methods: A convenience sample of 242 patients (131 of them HIV/HCV), Iranian adults (aged 18–57) living with HIV/AIDS, was recruited from outpatient referring to Imam Khomeini Hospital behavioral counseling center in Tehran city, Iran. The instruments included the Multidimensional QOL HIV (MQoL HIV) and a demographic section. Results: The majority of the samples were male and single. The mean age was 36.52 years (standard deviation = 8.5). HIV mono infected patients reported higher scores in social support and physical functioning, but lower scores in physical health compared with HIV/HCV co infected individuals. There was no significant difference in overall MQOL HIV score between HIV and HIV/HCV patients. Conclusion: Future studies will need to explore the impact of HCV on HIV infected individuals' QOL.
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Management of ovarian cysts with percutaneous aspiration and methotrexate injection
Pratiksha Gupta, Anju Huria
January-February 2016, 57(1):19-23
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.180566  PMID:27185974
Background: To evaluate ultrasonographic-guided cyst aspiration and methotrexate injection in the management of simple and endometriotic ovarian cysts in selected patients. Subjects and Methods: This prospective study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh, from November 2007 to October 2009. It included 132 female patients (age range, 15–72 years; mean, 38.7 years) with simple or endometriotic ovarian cysts (3.0–10.6 cm) at ultrasonic examinations. We performed puncture and aspiration followed by methotrexate injection into the cyst. All patients were followed for 12 months. None was lost to follow-up. Results: At follow-up ultrasonography, cysts had disappeared in 120 patients (90.90%) and persisted in 12 patients (9%). No major complications were observed in our study population during or after the procedure. Only 10 patients reported mild pelvic pain, and four others reported dizziness or nausea during or after the procedure. Malignant cells were not found in any of the cases at cytologic examination. We did not observe any cases of infection after the procedure. Conclusion: Ultrasonography-guided transabdominal aspiration of cyst fluid and subsequent methotrexate injection appears to be an alternative treatment for both simple and endometriotic ovarian cysts in selected cases.
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Comparison of the depth of tissue necrosis between double-freeze and single-freeze nitrous oxide-based cryotherapy
Akinfolarin Clement Adepiti, Olusegun Kayode Ajenifuja, Oluwaseyi Olatunji Fadahunsi, Stephen Adebayo Osasan, Olumuyiwa Eyitayo Pelemo, Morebishe Olabisi Loto
January-February 2016, 57(1):1-4
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.180561  PMID:27185971
Background: Cryotherapy is one the methods of treating cervical premalignant lesions. It is particularly suitable for low-resource countries because of it is relative cheaper, has low cost of maintenance, ease of use and that does not require electricity which is in short supply in many rural areas of developing countries where the incidence and mortality from cervical cancer is very high. In this study we compared single and double freezing on the cervices of women admitted for hysterectomy for benign conditions using Nitrous-based cryotherapy. Materials and Methods: Patients admitted for elective hysterectomy for benign gynaecological conditions were randomized into two arms. The first group had single freeze cryotherapy while the second arm received double freeze cryotherapy. The cervices were examined 24 hours later to determine the depth of tissue necrosis. Results: In this comparative study, the depth of tissue necrosis was deeper with double freeze compared with single freeze. Also in both arms, the depth of necrosis was deeper on anterior lips than on posterior lips of the cervix. Conclusion: Double freeze technique achieve more depth of tissue necrosis than single-freeze on both anterior and posterior lips of the cervix.
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Immunohistochemical profile of uterine leiomyomas; a comparison between different subtypes
Mahzad Azimpouran, Shabnam Vazifekhah, Farnaz Moslemi, Reza Piri, Mohammad Naghavi-Behzad
January-February 2016, 57(1):54-58
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.180567  PMID:27185980
Background: Of all Smooth muscle tumours originating from uterus are leiomyomas are the most common ones. Benign nature and smooth muscle origination of leiomyomas can be easily documented via histological examination. In present study it was tried to examine immunohistochemical profile of leiomyomas with different subtypes. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study 64 cases of smooth muscle tumors originating from uterus were included in study. As a control group 12 cases of conventional leiomyomas were selected. Then estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, p53 and ki-67 were assessed. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS 16.0. Results: P 53 and ki-67 antibody status was diffusely positive in 12 out of 24 cases (50%) of leiomyosarcomas. Leiomyomas with bizzare nuclei were stained with Ki67 proliferative marker less than those in obviously malignant cases (P < 0.001). Estrogen and progesterone receptors had a reverse correlation with tumours malignancy potential. Conclusion: Since p53 is known as an important inhibitory trigger for proliferative cycle of cells, in current study it was concluded that p53 inhibitory role decreases as malignancy potential increases, also tumors dependence on steroids via steroid receptors decreases as malignancy potential increases.
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Effect of current glycemic control on qualitative body composition in sedentary ambulatory Type 2 diabetics
Jayesh Dalpatbhai Solanki, Amit H Makwana, Hemant B Mehta, Panna Kamdar, Pradnya A Gokhale, Chinmay J Shah
January-February 2016, 57(1):5-9
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.180562  PMID:27185972
Background: Obesity and Type 2 diabetes mellitus are on rise with cause–effect relationship. Diabetics monitor blood sugar, neglecting qualitative body composition, leaving residual threat of ectopic fat unattended. We tried to correlate glycemic triad with parameters of body composition derived objectively by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Materials and Methods: A sample of 78 under treatment sedentary Type 2 diabetics of either sex with known glycemic and lipidemic control from our city. Following baseline assessment measurement was done by instrument Omron Karada Scan (Model HBF-510, China) using the principle of tetra poplar BIA to derive parameters of body composition. We tried to correlate glycemic triad with these parameters, both directly as well as after defining them as per established cutoff norms. Results: We found poor glycemic control in the study group (20% for Hb1AC), high body mass index, subcutaneous fat, visceral fat (VF), total body fat (TBF), and lesser mass of skeletal muscle in Type 2 diabetics. However, there were small, insignificant, and inconsistent difference of these parameters while directly correlating with the fasting blood sugar, postprandial blood sugar, and glycosylated hemoglobin. On qualitative assessment, the impact of glycemic control as per standard norms, the risk of high VF, high TBF, low skeletal muscle mass was though high (between 1 and 2) in Type 2 diabetics with poor glycemic control as compared to good glycemics, but each strength lacks statistical significance. Conclusion: BIA reveals that Type 2 diabetics have more ectopic fat on expense of skeletal muscle that do not correlate with current glycemic status, both quantitatively and qualitatively. Measurement of body composition can be included and subjects can be motivated for lifestyle modification strategies while managing metabolic derangements of Type 2 diabetes.
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Cost-effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in a poor resource setting: The Okada, Nigeria experience
Kenneth C Eze, E Irekpita, TA Salami
January-February 2016, 57(1):44-48
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.180568  PMID:27185978
Background: The first extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) used in Nigeria was at Igbinedion Hospital and Medical Research Centre (IHMRC), Okada in 1992 and it functioned for 6 consecutive years. The objectives of this study were to analyze the cost-effectiveness of the procedure and highlight the associated factors that led to its failure. Methods: A retrospective study of medical records and publications associated with the use of ESWL at IHMRC, Okada, for the period of 1992 to 1998. The study was conducted between January 2003 and November 2008. Unclassified authentic information relating to the use of ESWL and treatment of upper urinary tract stones was obtained from the IHMRC Okada and some government hospitals on hospital bills. Relevant documents in public domains related to the national and international wages and emoluments of medical workers and socioeconomic development of Nigeria within the time the ESWL functioned were studied. Result: A total of 32 patients were treated with 51 treatment sessions which is an average of nine patients per year and an average of two treatment sessions per patient were involved. The reasons for the low patronage were the extremely low stone formation rate of Nigerians, poverty, and out-of-pocket payment system. In addition, each treatment session of ESWL at Okada cost an average of $681.8 compared to $227.3 for open nephrolithotomy in a nearby high profile teaching hospital. The IHMRC, Okada, paid an average annual salary of ₦180,000 ($8,181.8) for each medical consultant compared to ₦120,000 ($5,454.5) paid by federal teaching hospitals in Nigeria within the period. Expatriate consultant doctors from Europe and USA who initially manned the lithotriptor at IHMRC, Okada, were paid much higher salaries. Average annual income of $5,909 for each of the 6 years amounting to a total of $34,771.7 for the six years was realized which could not maintain staff salaries in the hospital leading to staff emigration, decline of the hospital services, and eventual closure of the ESWL procedure center in the hospital in 1998. Conclusion: ESWL at Okada was not cost-effective both to patients and the hospital management. Despite these, ESWL is desirable in poor-resource countries because of its noninvasiveness, low morbidity, and usability in patients who are unfit for open surgery. Purchasing high technological medical equipment as commodities by sub-Saharan Africans without considering the prevalence of diseases they are meant to cater for, their maintenance for steady function during useful lifespan, their cost-effectiveness and how to recoup the money spent on investments depletes the scarce foreign exchange reserve of the home countries and is eventually counterproductive as exemplified by this case.
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